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i-'-i ''••',''1 










VOL. XV, Pt. 1. 

















CHAPTER lY—contd. 


Peevious Notices . 


Geneeal Geology — contd. 
Section 7. — Deccan trap and Late- 


rite .... 


Phtsical Featuees. 

„ 8. — Superficial deposits 


Section 1. — General structure of the 

9.— Faults 





2.— HUls . 


Atteunga Coal Field. 

„ 3.— Rivers . 


Section 1. — Talchir gi-oup 


„ 4. — Hot springs 


„ 2.— Barakar „ 



„ 3. — Raniganj „ 



„ 4. — Panchet „ 


Section 1. — Inhabitants . 


„ 5. — Mahadeva series . 


,, 2. — Roads and carriage 



„ 3. — Forests. Wild animals 


Hutae Coal Field. 

„ 4. — Cultivation . 


Section 1. — Talchir group 


„ 5. — Climate 


„ 2. — Barakar „ 



Geneeal Geology. 
Formations represented . 
Section 1. Metamorphic series 

2.1 . /Talchir group . 

3. 1 <i I Barakar ,, 

4. ; g / Raniganj „ . 

5.1 O Panchet „ . 

6.' \ Mahadeva series 



Economic eesoiteces. 

Section 1. — Coal . 

. 108 

2.— Iron . 

. 112 

„ 3. — Limestone . 

. 125 

„ 4. — Lead and copper . 

. 125 


Tatapani Coal Field 



Map of the Aurungah Coal-field. Scale 1 inch = 1 mile. 
Map of the Hutar Coal-field, Scale 1 inch = 1 mile. 
Map of the Coal-fields of Palamow and adjoining Districts, Scale 1 inch = 8 miles. 

Agariah Iron Smelters, Palamow ....... to face fage 120 


VOL. XV, Pt. 1. 



Page 8, line 11 from top, for " Mirial" read " Miral." 

Pages 13 & 14 — The notes a at foot are transposed. 

Page 29, line 6 from top, insert " in" after " participated." 

„ 30, line 4 from bottom, /oj« " Lower" (group) read " Raniganj." 

„ 37, line 16 from bottom, insert " the" after " West of." 

„ 45, line 2 from top, insert " the" after " in." 

„ 50, line 15 from top, dele " as has already been mentioned." 

„ 50, note a, for " dherhur" read " dherhur." 

„ 81, line 16 from bottom, /o/* "borings" reat? "holings." 

„ 82, line 9 from top,/o>' "Mariatu" reacZ "Masiatu." 

„ 111, line 2 from top, /or « Valatile" read " Volatile," and line 11 from top, /or 
" Dansi" read " Dauri." 

„ 112, line 11 from top, /or " brownish" read "brown." 

„ 117, line 14 from top, /or " Chipars" read " Chiparo." 

„ 125, line 4 from top, /or "west" read "east," and line 11 from top, for 
"Sattarwah" read "Sat-Barwah." 






s ^'^s.-^ 



















Aet. 1. — Oil the Aurunga and Hntdr Coal-fields and the Iron Ores of 
Palamow and Toree^ hy V. Ball, M.A., F.G.S., Geological Survey of 






Section 1. — General structure of the area 13 

„ 2.— Hills 15 

3.— Rivers 17 

„ 4. — Hot springs 



Section 1. — Inhabitants 24 

„ 2. — Roads and carriage 25 

3. — Eorests. Wild animals 26 

4.— Cultivation 27 

5. — Climate 


Formations represented 

Section 1. — Metamorphic series 

2. — ^^ 4 rTalchir group 

3 — I § I Barakar „ 

4.— \ I \ Raniganj „ 
5.— I § I Panchet „ 
6. — J <5 (^Mahadeva series . 
7. — Deccan trap and laterite 
8.— Superficial deposits 




„ 9.— Faults • 5^ 


Section 1. — Talchir group 

2. — Barakar „ 
3. — Raniganj „ 
4. — Panchet „ 
5. — Mahadeva series 








Section 1. — Talchir group 

. 91 

,-, 2. — Barakar „ 

. 95 

„ 3. — Mahadeva series . 

. 105 



Section 1.— Coal . . . . 

. 108 

2.— Iron . . . . 

. 112 

„ 3.' -Limestone . . • . 

. 125 

„ 4. — Lead and copper . 

. 125 

Appendix. — Tatapani Coal-field 

. 126 

Ak.t. 2. — Geology of the Ramlcola and Tdtcq)dnl Coal-fields, hy 
C. L. Griesbach^ F.G.S.^ Geological Sur^^ey of India. 


Phj'sical features 
Crj^stalline area 

Old gneiss 

Crystalline schists 

Granitic rocks 
The sub-metamorphic rocks 
The Gondwana series 

Talchirs (Lower GondtcdnaJ 

JBarakars „ 

HaniganJ „ 

Panchets ,, 

Mahadevas (Upper Gondwana) 


Recent deposits 

















I.— The eastern basin (Tatapani, Gidhi, &c,,) belonging to the 


A. — Tatapani and Sendue eivee sections 155 

1. — Section along the nitllah north of Bithiau ..... 156 

2.— „ „ „ south of Agar -t 158 

3. — „ in the nullahs hetiveen Cheehra and No. 326 H. T. north of 

Mitgain ..,'.. .... 160 



B.— Banki eivee sections . . . . 

4. — Section along the nullah east of Gidhi and in the BanJci river to 
Panri .......... 

along the nullahs left and right of Banki river west of 
Chumra .......... 

along the nullah north of Meguli ...... 

,, „ nullahs hetweeji Bagra and Latoa .... 

in the Siia Chua nullah ....... 

in the nullahs betweeji Gargori and Npioadih 




II, — The westeen BASiisrs, BELONGiNa to the Eee eivee system. 

A. — Ieia eitee sections. 
10. — Hegai nullah ......... 

11, — Sections in the Ledho nullali north of Karamdiha . 

12. — „ hetioeen Karamdiha and No. 506 H. T., including the lotvet 

Ledho, Charki and KundTcejpi nullahs ... 
13. — Section along the Balsotha nullah and adjoining area ivestwards 

B. — MoENE eivee sections. 
14. — Section m the Morne nullah hetioeen Kandia and Hadrai 
15. — Sections of the Lundra hills ..... 

16. — Section in the Suhnai nullah ..... 

17.— ,, along the nxillah north-west of Manha Khar 
18. — „ in the Budatand nullah .... 

19. — „ south of Mmifur ...... 

20. — „ in the Morne near Parasdiha 
21. — Sections inthe Suidad, Kuhia, and Andherua nullahs and the ad- 
joining country . . . ' . 

C. — Mahan eivee sections, between the Tamoe scaep and the 
metamoephic eidge south of it 







1 8 




Map of the Aurunga Coal-field. Scale 1 inch = 1 mile. 
Map of the Hutar Coal-field. Scale 1 inch := 1 mile. 
Map of the Coal-fields of Palamow and adjoining Districts. Scale 1 inch = 8 miles, 


Agariah Iron Smelters, Palamow . to face page 120 

Map to face page 129 

Fig. 1. Mahadeva escarpment of the Tamor hill, valley of the M ahan 

river . . ......... 148 

„ 2. Trap-dyke, filling up joints in Mahadeva sandstones, in the 

Dhursot nullah . 153 

„ 3. Erosion in Barakar sandstone of Suidad nullah .. . . 188 
PI, I, fig. 1. Profile of the metamorphic series between the Chunderpur 

Pats and Tatapani. 
„ I, „ 2. Profile of the metamorphic series of Assandiah. 
„ II, „ 1. Pot-holes in Talchir sandstone, north of Mitgain, 
„ II, „ 2. Talchir boulder-bed and shales, south-west of Kandia. 
„ III, „ 1. Section between Mahadeva escarpment, west of Agar-t and the 

metamorphic rocks, east of Pathalpdei. 
„ III, „ 2, Section in nullahs between Chechra and No. 326 H, T. 
„ III, „ 3. Section in the nullah east of Gidhi and along the Banki 

nullah to Panri. 
„ IV, ,, 1. Section along the nullahs left and right of the Banki river, 

west of Chumra. 
„ IV, „ 2. Section between Gargori and Nowadih, 
„ TV, „ 3. Section between Kandia and the Morne nullah. 
„ V, „ 1. Section between Pipra hill and Kothi village. 
„ V, „ 2. Section through the Mahadevas between Turpa and Khond. 
,. V, „ 3. Section between the Tamor plateau and the Mahan valley. 
„ VI, „ 1. Mahadeva escarpment of the Tamor plateau (south of Kam- 

kola), with intrusive sheet of trap. 
„ VI, „ 2. Profile of Mahadeva hills as seen from Bara Barthi. 
„ VI, „ 3. Mahadeva hills, with trap-dyke, looking northwards from 





On the Aukunga and Hutae Coal Fields and the Iron Ores 

OF Palamow and ToreEj hy V. Ball, M.A., F.G.S., Geological 

Survey of India. 


About fifty years have elapsed since attention was first directed by Mr. 
A. Prinsep to Palamow, the object being to open out the coal fields 
then known to exist, and so obtain a supply of cheap fuel for the 
steam navigation of the Ganges. It was urged that an immense saving 
would accrue to Government by the establishment of a coal depot at 
Futwah, only a few miles from Patna, which would feed all the more 
western stations on the river. 

To meet this demand the Daltonganj field was worked by the Bengal 
_ ,j^ . „ , ^ , Coal Company up to the time of the mutiny, when 

Daltongan] nela work- x .; ± j ' 

ed by Bengal Coal Com- the works Were attacked by the rebels and de- 


stroyed. Since then coal has been mined, or rather 
quarried, to a small extent for the supply of the irrigation head- 
works at Dehree on the Sone, and for the supply for local purposes of some 
of the nearer towns in the vicinity of the East Indian Railway. During 
Field not worked at ^^® P^^^ ^^^ years Operations have, however, been in 
l^^^^®^*' abeyance, owing to the cessation of these local 


Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, Vol. XV, Art I. 


The main canal having been completed, the questions have recently- 
Proposed branch line arisen, first, whether, by connecting the Palamow 
of railway. flgj^jg ^[^^\^ j^\^q j^^st Indian Eailway by means of a 

branch line, or by a branch line and canal combined, a considerable saving 
in the price of coal, as compared with the cost of that carried from 
Karharbari, could not be secured for north-western stations ; second, 
whether the Palamow subdivision does not offer facilities for the manu- 
facture of iron on the European system. 

A definite estimate of the probable amount and the quality of the 
Preliminary informa- ^^^^ available, and an examination of the circum- 
tion required. stances under which the iron ores known to exist 

occur, being preliminary data of great importance in this enquiry, it 
was determined last year that the geological examination of the area 
should be resumed^ in continuation of Mr. Hughes^ work on the Dalton- 
ganj field. 

The Palamow subdivision with the adjoining parganah of Toree, 

which geographically and geologically belongs to 
Area examined. 

it, though it does not do so fiscally, occupies an 

area of about 4,373 square miles. To geologically examine the whole of 
this tract, with a degree of detail which would be exhaustive and of 
permanent value, would occupy several working seasons. It was there- 
fore considered advisable to make the examination of the coal fields the 
principal object of the season^s work ; while by making long traverses 
across the main area of metamorphic rocks, the principal iron localities 
could be visited, and a certain amount of negative, if not of positive, 
evidence could be obtained regarding the possible existence of hitherto 
undiscovered basins occupied by sedimentary rocks. 

The result has fully justified this disposition of the available time. 

Existence of two dis- The so-called Upper Coal Field^ has been found to 

tinct fields ascertained. resolve itself into two distinct and separate fields 

which contain very different qualities of coal ; which information, 

^ It is to be hoped that this ambiguous and misleading title will not be again employed 
by any one who may have to write of these fields. 

( 2 ) 


and that which has been obtained regarding the various iron deposits, will 

probably be considered sufficient to determine 
Iron orGS* 

the questions as to the projected establishment of 

an iron factory and the selection of the best route for connecting the 

district with the East Indian Railway. 

For reasons that will be given on subsequent pages, the titles Aurunga 

and Hutar have been adopted to indicate in future 
Titles of fields. , , n ^ i . , • 

these two areas or coal measures ana their associ- 
ated sedimentary rocks. 

Although it will be necessary to describe each field separately, the 
Arrangement of sub- preliminary chapters in this account, which refer 
3®°*^- to previous observers and to the general physical 

features and geological structure of the surrounding country, will be 
common to both. This is not merely a matter of convenience, but is 
rendered necessary from the fact that the existence of two distinct 
fields was not apparently realised by any one who has hitherto written 
on the subject. Further, the advantage of describing the physical 
features in one continuous account is sufficiently obvious. For very 
much the same reasons, the concluding chapter on the economic resources 
will refer to both fields and also to the surrounding area of crystalline 
rocks, since it will thus be easier to treat as a whole the comparative 
and general aspects of the conditions under which the coal, iron and 
other minerals occur, their value and availability. It is therefore the 
purely descriptive geology of the fields alone which it will be necessary 
to submit to separate treatment and description. 

( 3 ) 



In Eenneirs map of the " Conquered Provinces on the South of Behar^^ 
Eennell J. F.R S. l^^' ^^^^)) ^^ ^^^^ "Colemine"^ marked on a 
Atlas, 1781. gpQ^^ which, from its relative position to the Coyle 

(Koel) river and the villages of Chopere (Chapri) and Coruna (Karun- 
khora), may confidently be identified with Hutar. This particular map 
is dated 1779, so that the discovery of the field took place at least a century 
ago, and long before the fields in many more accessible localities were 
brought to notice. It is not improbable that the fact of its being in the 
neighbourhood of the Palamow Fort may have attracted attention to it. 
Under these circumstances, the propriety of adopting the name of the 
village Hutar to indicate the coal field will not be disputed. 

In the year 1830 the Hutar field was visited by Captain Sage, who 
gives a section of the coal seams and associated 
rocks which occur at the junction of the Dauri 

and Ghorasan rivers as follows : — 

Ft. In. 
Eartt, sand and gravel . . . . i . .80 

Sandstone 6 4 

Shale (bituminous) . . . . . . . .10 

Ditto 2 1 

Coal 11 

Stale . , . . . ..10 

Sandstone .14 

Coal , 3 9 

24 7 

a This is also marked on Arrowsmith's map for 1804. Tlie locality was visited by Captain 
Franklin in 1829. See "Gleanings in Science," "Vol. I, p. 178, and Vol. II, p. 217. 
* " Gleanings in Science," Vol, II, pp. 219, 220. 
( 4 ) 


He speaks liiglily of this coal as being very bituminous and burning- 
with a clear bright flame. It has been supposed that the coal spoken 
of as being of inferior quality by Mr, Smith (videpostea) was the same, but 
this I do not think to be the case. I shall show on a subsequent page that 
there are several distinct outcrops of coal in the Dauri section. 

Captain Sage also visited the ' coal mine ' at Hutar, and in the Burra 
river close by discovered extensive beds of coal on the left bank. I do 
not know to which of the streams the name Burra was applied. If it be 
the one at Hutar, the term extensive is certainly applicable to the seams 
in a sense, as the lateral extension is considerable; but the thickness it 
will be seen is trifling. 

Ironstone is said to be plentiful in the neighbourhood of Alyapur, 
three miles south, where it is worked. The name Alyapur is unknown to 
me, but ironstone does occur about three miles south of Hutar. Captain 
Sage's remarks on the navigability of the Koel I shall again allude to. 

In the year 1837 Mr. J. Homfray was deputed by the Coal Com- 
Homfray, J., 10th naittec to report on the coal fields of Palamow. 
July 1837.' ' Hesays^:— 

" At a ford near Mungardar Nuddee on the river edge, four or five thin bands of coal, 
from four to twelve inches in thickness, but no thick vein ; near to this place is Hutar, 
and this is conjectured to be the site of Eennel's ' Cole mine, ' since there is no other place 
in the river for some miles where coal is to be found, untU we reach the small nuddee 
of Barwellia running to the eastward ; and at half a mile up that stream there is a fine 
vein of coal three feet four inches thick. This coal is found also to the westward at 
Myapore, and indeed for an immense distance southward and westward ; it is traceable 
even down to Singhbhum and towards Euttenpur — this I learnt from an intelligent 
zamindar with whom I was in company for three days — so also to the eastward ; and 
this is what constitutes the Palamow coal field. Within the Barwellia Nuddee this vein 
of coal is three feet four inches, exclusive of some little adhesive black shale which 
makes the apparent thickness of the vein to be four feet six inches. Both sides of this 
Nuddee are very high sandstone hills, and underneath which the coal is traceable to 
the eastward and northward, continuing to crop out in a vast number of places until 

^ Coal Committee's Report, 1846, p. 159. 

( 5 ) 


we bring it fairly over to the Dauri Nuddee, the upper end of which winds into 
an extraordinary deep and narrow valley, within which this vein, as well as another 
smaller one of one foot six inches lying at five fathoms beneath it, is found." 

Mr. Homfray after a description of tlie valley goes on to say that 
he raised 700 maunds of this coal, and states that — 

" It bums with little flame, gives out an intense heat, with very little or scarce 
any smoke ;.it retains fire for days together ; and to me appears to be a stone coal." 

I should have preferred to have given a resume of Mr. Homfray^s 
remarks as a whole, rather than quote the above 
Inaccuracies m the rambling statement; but I find it quite impos- 
sible to follow a large portion of his description. 
Some of the localities he mentions are quite unknown to me, and on the 
others the remarks are either vague or inaccurate ; particularly, however, 
is it necessary to call attention to the statement made about the coal 
extending to Ratanpur and Singhbhum on the authority of an 
intelligent native. If for Singhbhum we read Sirguja, the statement 
would be consistent with general accuracy. But as Singhbhum is 
again referred to by Mr. Homfray, and his statement has been quoted 
in subsequent publications, it is necessary to point out that a Singh- 
bhum coal fiield had its existence only in the imagination of his intel- 
ligent friend. Detached areas of coal measures do, however, extend 
towards Korba and Ratanpur through Sirguja and adjoining territories. 
In the Committee's Report, Mr. Homfray's estimate of the extent of the 
field is stated to be fourteen miles by six miles, which would be a fair 
approximation to the truth ; but in his own letter he seems to claim a 
wider extension " over an immense extent of country" 

He points out very clearly the impossibility of employing the Koel 
above Chandu as a means of carriage, but some- 
natation.''"''''*''^ ^°'' w^^^ exaggerates the difiiculties of the route by 
road, as the Ghats he speaks of can be avoided. 
^™^' Regarding iron he writes — 

" Ironstone is here found in abundance close to the village of Baumundya in the 
Dauri Nuddee in veins of three and four inches each ; these veins are also found in 
( 6 ) 


the ravines all tke way to Pohea Agar (Pootooagur of present map), and at which place 
there are a number of ii'on melting furnaces upon the native plan. Iron is here sold 
generally at Es. 2-12 to Es. 3 per maund of 48 sicca-weight seers ; it is in lumps of 
four to five pounds each, and has undergone the process of hammering and re-melting 
four times at the time of sale." 

Mr. Homfray concludes with a mention of the " extraordinary fact " 

"the gigantic reed whose impressions we constantly discover in the carbonaceous 
strata is here found growing in luxuriance. I have brought some whose roots were 
actually extended four feet into the coal bed. This is the only example I know of 
the living reed being found near to coal." 

In Dr. McClelland's Report we are told that the specimens were 
exhibited at a scientific soiree at Government House, as belonging to the 
plant from which coal is derived. Subsequently, they were found to be 
only a well-known-grass, Saccharum spontaneum, which grows very 
generally throughout Bengal. Possibly to this expose of his discovery 
may be attributed some of the bitterness of Mr. Homfray's remarks upon 
the " literary phantasmagoria " of " snail hunters ■"" and " saxoflorists " 
which appears in his paper on the coal-field of the Damuda Valley% where 
he very properly points out the absurdity of the theories which were 
current as to the former connection of the Damuda and Sylhet coal fields. 

In looking over the past history of discoveries 
S^tX" Go,™S °f '=°-l i° P"!"-""", I find several allusions to a re- 
of Bengal, dated 6th puted discovery of coal at a place called " Chupri, 

January 1840°. ^ ' 

two koss south of the Sone river, before its junc- 
tion with the Koila Nuddee.-'' 

Properly speaking, this locality is quite outside the area under de- 
scription ; but owing to the fact of its proximity to 

coal aTchuprr'^"^^^^ ° ^^® ^^^^ works of the canal and to the occurrence 
of quite another place with the same name close 

to the Hutar field, I think it not altogether inopportune to give here 

■ Journal, As. See, Bengal. Vol. XI, p. 724. 

" Eeprinted in Mr. Forbes' Settlement Report of Palamow. — Calcutta, 1872. 

( 7 ) 


the result of my inquiries. As the locality is not given in the coal 
Committee's Eeport printed in 1846, it may be that the true history was 
at that time known to the Committee; but nowhere can I find any pub- 
lished statement of the real facts as given below. 

According to Mr. Eavenshaw's letter, the discovery at the above- 
named locality was communicated to him by Cazi Mahamdee of 
parganah Jupla — 

"The specimen of coal forwarded from this mine appeared precisely similar in 
■ quality to that from the Singra mines ; but after digging a hundred maunds, the coal is 
stated to have assumed a more stony character, and the Cazi therefore abandoned the 
mine and proceeded to the old mines of Singra and Mirial near the banks of the 
Koila Nuddee." 

The remark on this made in Dr. McClelland's Report on the coal 
fields of India, dated 11th July 1845^ is as follows— 

"If the Cazi's statements regarding the existence of coal so near the Sone be 
correct, the circumstances under which it occurs ought to be fully investigated." 

Although the neighbourhood is included in the Geological Survey Map 
published in 1869, the position of one village named Chupri being repre- 
sented as surrounded by alluvium, and although the account of the Cazi's 
operations was strongly suggestive of deception, it seemed to me all impor- 
tant to thoroughly enquire into the story and, if possible, expose and stamp 
out the fiction, or establish the fact, as the case might be. Being somewhat 
pressed for time towards the end of the season, and unable personally to 
visit the locality, I was fortunate in being able to refer to Mr. 
Davies of Rotasgurh, from whom I received the following letter, which 
will probably recall to some readers of this similar stories of reputed 
coal discoveries in other parts of India. Mr. Davies writes— 

" That olden report concerning the discovery of coal at Chupri, not far from Deori 

was a pure fabrication and got up by the then Cazi of Jupla 

Mr. Davies' letter. ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ingratiate himself with the Bengal Coal Company 

and benefit by working on their apprehensions. The matter was closely enquired into 

* Printed by order of the House of Commons, 19tl) .June 1863, and reprinted, in so far as 
it refers to Palamow, in Mr. Forbes' Settlement Report. 

( 8 ) 


by a gentleman named Sweetland, with whom I was well acquainted. He was on the 
staff of the very first explorers in India on account of railways, and was practically 
acquainted with geology. The other Chapri to which you allude is, as you observe, 
located on alluvium. A report similar to that got up by the Cazi was spread abroad by 
a loJiar, or blacksmith, in the vicinage, shortly before Dr. Hooker came to Eotas, and 
Mr, Williams (Government Geologist), in company with Dr. Hooker, explored the Bhukhi 
Kho, or valley, in consequence fruitlessly. I subsequently discovered that the lohar 
had purposely scattered fragments of Eajharra coal in the dry bed of the Bhukhi Kho 
to give a color to his assertions." 

Dr. Hooker in his journal does not make any reference to this in his 
account of his visit to E,hotas, but alludes to the information and assist- 
ance he received from Mr. Davies. 

In his Report on the coal and iron of Bengal^ Mr. Smith, having- 

described the coal field in the neighbourhood of 
Smith, D., 1856.' , . . *= , 

Eajharra, gives an account of his observations made 

during a rapid trip southwards into the Hutar field. He appears to have 

met with but one seam, which occurs in the Dearee (Dauri) Nuddee at 

the foot of a hill named Chenra. It is described as being two feet two 

inches thick and of very inferior quality. His further remark that — 

" the strata here have a ' dip ' to the west, which is unusual and may be taken to 
indicate a serious disturbance in this coal field "— 

shews a certain want of appreciation of the laws of legitimate geologi- 
cal induction j but otherwise I see nothing to justify a recently-printed 
criticism of Mr. Smithes Eeport. On the other hand, in dealing with 
the question of iron manufacture, his full mastery of his subject is 
abundantly apparent. What he wrote in 1856 might be read with 
advantage by promoters of iron works to-day** 

111 health prevented further exploration of the area, and the principal 
coal deposits were not seen by him. But he was fully satisfied that the 

" Eeport to Government of India on the Coal and Iron Districts of Bengal, dated 
Nynee Tal, 1856. 

" A reprint of Mr. Smith's Report will be found in Dr. Oldham's " Eeturn on the Coal 
Resources and Production of India." — Calcutta, 1867. 

( 9 ) 


heavy cost of transport and the bad quality of the coal — 

" deprived this locality of all chance of successful competition with others more 
favourably circumstanced." 

It will be found that the conclusions I have arrived at^ even under 
the somewhat altered conditions of the present day, are in many respects 

On his return journey northward, he reports the occurrence near the 
village of Adur of a — 

" deposit of magnetic iron ore of the very richest quality, but so limited in quantity 
as to be of no importance." 

Appended to his Report on the Daltonganj field, Mr. Hughes gives a 
note on the sedimentary rocks observed by him at 
Satbarwah, whei-e he only saw Talchirs, and in the 
neighbourhood of Latiahar, where he remarked upon the presence of 
Barakars and Upper Panchets (Mahadevas) . He states that there is 
but little coal, and notes the ferruginous character of the Barakars in 
some sections. 

Mr, Forbes' Settlement Keport embraces a wider range of topics and 

contains more interesting information than is to be 
Forbes, L. R., 1872." . . . * 

found in many similar publications. The first 

chapter on the physical features contains most of the information im- 
mediately connected with the present subject, but from several of the 
other chapters numerous facts bearing upon the future development of 
the country may be gleaned. The whole cannot fail to be instructive to 
any one who may be at present, or is likely to become hereafter, connected 
with the exploitation of the resources of Palamow. 

Mr. Forbes describes the general structure of the area, and points 
out that the forms of the hills are directly due to the character of the 
rocks of which they are built up. He then enters into some rather 

a Meiaoirs, Geological Survey of India, Vol. VIII, p. 22. 

'' " Report on the Ryotwaree Settlement of the Government Farms in Palamow " by 
L. R. Forbes, Esq., Assistant Commissioner and Settlement Officer, — Calcutta, 1872. 
( 10 j 


original speculations as to the origin of the crystalline rocks, and attri- 
butes, as others have done before him, the spHtting-up and fracture of 
the gneiss, &c., to the sudden transitions in temperature during the 
winter months. I believe this agency to be wholly incapable of produc- 
ing the results. Owing to the feeble conducting powers of stone, the 
temperature of the atmosphere can only affect but a limited superficial 
layer of rock ; moreover, with a sudden fall of temperature, the stone is 
not immediately cooled, but gradually radiates forth its heat, which pro- 
cess may be continued throughout the greater part of a night, as any 
one who has camped near bare rocks during the hot weather is likely to 
have a lively recollection of. 

jVTr. Forbes shews the accuracy of his powers of observation by 
pointing out the existence of detached patches of sedimentary rocks at a 
distance from the main areas. 

He then describes the coal- mining operations in the Daltonganj 
area, and discusses the question of a light railway to connect the field 
with the East Indian line. 

The discovery of copper ore by himself in Daltouganj is recorded, and 
there is an interesting sketch of the native system of manufacturing 
iron, to which reference will be made on a future page. 

Mr. Forbes alludes to the coal of the Aurunga valley, of which he 
appears to have been the first discoverer. 

In an appendix, the reports on the coal by several of the above 
authorities are quoted in full, the whole forming a valuable epitome 
of the information available on the subject up to date. 

In his descriptive accounts of the country surveyed in Districts 

SamueUs, Captain, Hazaribagh and Lohardugga during tlie season 

-72.a 1871-73, Captain Samuells mentions the seams at 

Jugguldugga as containing, apparently, the best coal. Several localities 

a " Report on the Revenue Survey Operations of the Lower Provinces from October 18V1 
to September 1872.—" Calcutta, 1873. 

i 11 ) 

12 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

where coal occurs in parganah Toree are also marked on his maps. 
The coal of the Amanut and Damuda is alluded to. 

The area occupied by the coalfields is roughly estimated at 1,500 
square miles. Including the Karanpura fields, this is about double the 
actual area, but was no doubt arrived at by supposing that the most 
remote localities formed part of one connected area. An account of 
some hot springs in Hazaribagh is also given by Captain Samuells. 

Some papers which have been printed by the Public Works Depart- 
Memoirs on Branch ^^nt, in connection with the proposed branch line 
Liae by P. W. D. ^f railway, contain a resume of the information on 

the coal fields which is given in some o£ the reports above quoted. As 
these documents I believe have not been published, they are not suscep- 
tible of criticism here. But what has been said on the previous pages will 
shew the value of some of the statements which have been thus 

( n ) 



Section 1. — General Structure of the Area. 
The portion of Palamow herein described and the parganah of 
Toree are situated south of the Daltonganj parallel 

deSnJed ""^ ''''^^^ ^^"^^ ^^ latitude. To define the tract more exactly, it 
may be said to coincide with the rectangular area 
which is bounded by the 83° 45' and 84° 45' meridians of east longi- 
tude, and the 23° 30' and 24° parallels of north latitude. 

In the central part of this area there is a distinct valley which is on 
the same line of east and west strike as the 

^ Central valley crossed Pamuda valley, but is separated from that line of 
by a watershed. "^ 

drainage by a very marked bar of metamorphic 
rocks which forms a watershed separating the waters which flow north- 
wards, by the Koel and Sone, into the Ganges from those which find 
their way eastwards by the Damuda into the Hugli and so into the 
Bay of Bengal. 

Separated by this barrier at an average distance from each other of 

six miles, lie the coal fields of Karanpura and 

Disruption of coal ^^runga. That these two areas formed at one 
nelds now produced. '^ 

time parts of a continuous whole, there can be little 
doubt; and the relative elevations of the two fields compared with that 
of the watershed, considered in connection with some other observations, 
indicate pretty clearly the modus operandi by which the disruption was 
produced. The marginal rocks of the Karanpura field dip away from 
this watershed at elevations only slightly below its average level, while 
outlying patches of beds of the same age occur at even higher levels. It 
does not seem probable, therefore, that the barrier is formed, at least to 
any great extent, of a locally upheaved ridge^. On the other hand, the 

" Mr, Medlicott found rocks which he considered to be of this age capping the Madagir 
Hill near Torce. 

( 13 ) 


Aui-unga field is at Rampur on the eastern margin 300 feet^ and at 
Latiahar, if the elevation given on the map be correct, more than 600 
feet below the watershed at Balumath. But when we find outlying 
patches of the Barakar rocks at elevations of from 150 to 200 feet higher 
than the neighbouring parts of the Aurunga field, and other patches 
which there is good reason to believe exist at still higher elevations in 
the highlands on the south-east and south,* we are compelled to suspect 
that the Aurunga field has subsided as a whole. That such has actually- 
been the case seems to be incontestibly confirmed by the intense faulting 
and tilting of the beds in that field, as is indicated on the map, and will 
be fully described on a future page. 

Similarly, the Hutar field shews evidence of having been let down to- 
wards the west by faults, which have tended to iso- 

Hutar field let down |^^g -^ ^^j g^j^gj, ^^e pre-existing general directions 
by faults. . 

of the drainage. There is, however, much less 
lithological resemblance as regards the lower groups of rocks between the 
Hutar and the Aurunga fields than there is between the latter and the 
Karanpura,, and there is therefore less ground for assuming an original 
continuity, though such may possibly have existed. 

Without trenching on the subjects which belong strictly to sub- 
sequent sections, it is impossible to enter here more fully into this part of 
the question. But so much, as affording a preliminary view of the origin 
of the present structure, was necessary to make what follows intelligible. 

This central Palamow valley, then, was probably originally continuous 
with the Damuda valley separating the Hazari- 

Central valley origin- 
ally continuous with the bagh plateau on the north from that of Lohardugga 

or Chutia Nagpur on the south.'' Towards the 

a The disturbance and tilting of some of the beds on the margin of the Karanpura 
field perhaps indicates some upheaval, but may, on the other hand, be due to lateral pressure 
from within. 

*• The origin of the valley as a whole, which is a distinct question from its separation 
into two, will be treated of on a future page in the section on the rocks of Mahadeva age. 
( 14 ) 

HILLS. 15 

valley of the Koel the former disappears^ but the latter is continued by 
rang-eSj pats and highlands generally through Sirguja and far away to 
the west. 

As the hills and rivers are described under separate sections below, 

it only remains to refer to the general aspect of 
Characters of scenery. . • i p 

the area. The scenery is very varied, often 

beautiful, and occasionally grand. Flat plains of wide extent are of rare 

occurrence. But the forest-clad hills, the bold scarps in the highlands 

formed of sandstone, the rocky beds and rapids of the principal rivers, 

and the lofty ranges which bound the view on the south, all combine to 

produce most pleasing effects. Thougli tolerably familiar with most 

parts of the wide area of Chutia Nagpur, I have seldom come 

across a scene more attractive than that presented to my view as I 

entered the Aurunga valley in December. Par- 
Aurunga valley. • i i -i • ^ co 

ticularly striking were the effects produced by the 

patches of many-tinted cultivation scattered about through the more 
uniformly coloured jungle which surrounds the irregularly outlined 
Jugguldugga and Latiahar sandstone ranges. There were scarcely any 
bare spots to be seen, and though the previous rainfall had been lament- 
ably insufficient for some of the crops, but little evidence of the drought 
was to be seen in the greenery and brightness of the jungles at that 

• Section 2. — Hills. 

The hills of this area are susceptible of a triple classification which 
is determined chiefly by the geological structure — 

i«i5.— The oldest and most numerous are those formed of the crystal- 
line or metamorphic rocks. 

2nd. — Those formed of sandstones or conglomerates. 

Brd. — YhA pats, or plateaux, which are formed of crystalline rocks, 
with their summits capped with sandstone trap or laterite. 

The 1st class is represented by a great number of hills and ranges, 
with elevations up to, and sometimes beyond, 3,000 feet. Where not 

( 15 ) 

16 ball: geology op aurunga and hutae coal eields. 

capped by any of the above-mentioned move recent formations, the 

outlines presented by these crystalline hills are 

Hills of crystalline generally sharply angular, but some of the ridges 

are flat-topped and continuous at pretty steady 

elevations for long distances. 

2nd, — The hills of this class are exclusively formed of one or other 
of two of the subdivisions of the Gondwana 

Hills of sandstones, &C. ■ n ^ -\ir ^ -\ -r ^ i 

sequence, viz., Barakars or Mahadevas. In the 

Aurunga field the Barakars never rise to form an eminence worthy of 

the title of hill ; but in the Hutar field, east of the 
Barakar hills. 

Koel river, they form long ranges averagmg from 

250 to 300 feet above the surrounding country, occasionally having peaks 
which rise about 300 feet higher. This occurrence of Barakars as hill- 
formers is unusual and will be again alluded to further on. 

Rocks of Mahadeva age occur as hill-formers not only in the Aurunga 
and Hutar fields, but also in the Karanpura and 
Tatapani fields. The structural and lithological 
characters in each case present the closest and most striking points of 
resemblance. In the Aurunga field there are three distinct groups of 
these hills, which are situated respectively in the neighbourhoods of the 
villages of Subano, Jugguldugga and Latiahar. Besides which there are 
two small outlying hills at Sasung and at Chulta west of Latiahar. 
These groups consist, for the most part, of flat-topped ridges from 200 to 
30O feet above the level of the surrounding country, and have their 
faces scarped and often eroded into grotesque shapes. Occasionally, 
where the beds have been tilted, conical pealJs rising considerably above 
the general level of the ridges have been formed, as, for example, the 
Chiharo peak near Subano, and the Latiahar peak near the village of the 
same name. The latter hill according to the map is 910 feet high, or 
2,051 feet above the level of the sea. 

In the Hutar field there are similar flat-topped ridges with scarped 
and eroded faces. In this area the Bijka hill is the most prominent 
peak, being 1,300 feet above the village of the same name, or 2,479 feet 
{ 16 ) 


above the sea. In its vicinity are several subordinate peaks^ all of which 
owe their elevation in a measure to the tilting of the beds caused by the 
faults which bound the field. 

8rd. — Regarding the p^ts which occur on the south of the area, what 
^. little is known of the details of the caps which 

i^ats : crystalline hills ... 

capped by trap, lateiite, give them their peculiar character will be found 

on a following page. The principal are Neturhat 

3,600 feet; Lamti p^t 3,777 ; Gulgul pat, 3,823 feet; Jamira pat, and 

Mailan p4t, 4,024 feet. Besides these patSj from the contours of some 

of the hills near Balumath, I think it probable that they will be found 

to be capped with sandstone. The Madaffir hill. 
Other capped hills. , 

near Toree, was found by Mr. Medlicott to be 

capped with sandstones, which appeared to him to be of Earakar age. 

North of the Hutar field, near Bansdih, the Chungah hill is capped by 

a curious arkose bed which forms a small plateau. 

As to the age of this rock, I am quite uncertain, owing to its very 
local lithological characters. For the present it must remain unrelegated 
to its position in the geological se'quence. 

Section 3. — Rivers. 

The principal rivers of our area are the Koel,^ the Aurunga, the 

Sukri and the Kunhur. The most remarkable 

Rivers afeord evidence feature exhibited in common by the Koel and 

01 great denudation. •' 

Kunhur is that their courses run north and south, 
or at right angles to the valleys in which the coal-fields are situated, 
thus indicating an enormous amount of denudation, since the direction 
must have been determined when the valleys were filled up to the level 
of the bounding ridges through which these rivers have cut deep 

a I adopt this mode of spelling the name, as it more nearly, I believe, represents the 
ordinary native pronunciation than any of the numerous other combinations of letters 
which have been used by different writers, e, g., Coyle, Koyle, Coil, Koila and even Cel, 
B ( 17 ) 


The Koel. — This river takes its rise in Burwah;, another river of 

the same name also rising near the same spot, but 

Length and size of proceeding" southwards, to contribute to the forma- 

tion of the Brahmini. This northern Koel is 

from its source to its junction with the Sone about 160 miles long, and 

since it drains a catchment area of at least 3,500 square miles, it naturally 

contributes a large supply of water to the Sone during the rains ; but at 

other times the quantity is not sujOScient to enable cargo boats of the 

smallest dimensions to make their way between Daltonganj and the Sone. 

At one time it was proposed (by Captain Sage in 1830) to make 
use of this river as a means of conveying coal 
from the Hutar field to the Sone. But any one 
to whom an opportunity had been afforded of actually seeing the rocky 
bed and rapids which are found between Chandu and Hutar could not 
have failed to denounce the scheme as an utterly chimerical and imprac- 
ticable one. In any discussion as to the means which may be employed 
for bringing the Hutar coals to market, the navigation of the Koel as it 
now is, or even the canalization of it, may, I think, safely be left out of 

It may be that the construction of a canal, fed by the head waters 
of the Koel, is possible ; but so far as I know the ground, I believe that 
it would be attended with most serious difficulties, owing to the fact that 
the only outlet northwards is that of the Koel valley, which is in places 
so much constricted by impinging ranges of hills, that a low, level canal 
could scarcely be made so as to be safe froni^ floods. 

In many places this river affords scenes of very great beauty and 

sometimes of grandeur. The rocky bed and the 
Scenery on Koel. 

rapids a few miles north of Hutar — the neighbour- 
hood of Sindhorwah, where the river has scarped the hills of Barakar 
rocks which rise frowning over the channel and the rapids near Purro, 
beyond the southern boundary of the field — may be quoted as instances 
in point. 

( 18 ) 

HOT SPlllNOS. 19 

The Aurunga is the only considerable tributary of the Koel within 
our limits. It rises near Soheda in the pass descending from Lohar- 
dugga into the valley, and pursues a winding course in a north-westerly 
direction for a distance of about 50 miles. Where it traverses the coal 
field it affords numerous and instructive sections. Leaving the coal field, 
its bed rapidly widens, and by the time it reaches Palamow, where the 
ruins of two considerable forts overlook it, it has attained a considerable 
size, and, with its channel crowded with huge masses of gneiss, afi'ords 
some very beautiful scenes. Owing to its rocky bed in this neighbour- 
hood, its navigation would be dangerous during the rains. At other 
seasons the supply of water is insufficient for even the smallest craft. 
Its principal tributaries are the Sukri and Ghugree, both of which 
traverse portions of the field. 

The Kunhur. — This river is in many respects similar to the Koel ; it is 
about the same length, and pursues a nearly parallel course, to the Sone. 
It is likewise, at least in its upper reaches, useless for purposes of navi- 
gation. For a considerable portion of its course it constitutes a well- 
defined boundary between Palamow and Sirguja. 

Section 4. — Hot Springs. 

In each of the separate areas described in this report, and in direct 
connection with lin^s of fracture which it will be shewn have been in- 
strumental in determining the present structure of the coal fields, there 
are series of hot springs. 

The first of these is in close proximity to the Aurunga field ; it is 

situated in the bed of the Tataka River at Jarum, 

Hot spring at Jarum. ' 

about a mile and a half north-west of Pochra, or 

in north latitude 23° 49' and east longitude 84" 32'. Although the water 

actually finds its way to the surface through joints in some vertical beds 

of granitic gneiss, which are the only rocks exposed in that part of the bed 

of the river, the position is in immediate proximity to the continuation 

of the well-marked east-to-west fault which has cut ofi" the Barakars, &c., 

at the north-west corner of the Aurunga field. Were there a complete 

( 1^ 


section exposed, it is almost certain that it would give conclusive evidence 
of the existence of fracture and distortion in close proximity to the 
spring-. Not improbably the hills at Joreesukhwa, a little further west, 
will, when examined, mark the line of fault. Reference to the map will, 
perhaps, render the above description more clear, and justify the probable 
correctness of the supposition. 

The highest temperature of the water of the several outlets did not 

exceed 132* F. The amount of water poured forth. 
Temperature. • /. i i 

though not very copious, formed a steady stream. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen was emitted freely in bubbles, and its odour was 
apparent for some distance all around. 

The springs being situated in the sandy bed of a running stream are 
No peculiar develop- ^^^ accompanied by any unusual development of 
ment of vegetable life. vegetable life. 

My attention was particularly directed to this point since I have, in 
the basin of the Mahanadi, met with some very interesting instances of 
considerable modification of the Flcra in the vicinity of certain hot 
springs. I hope to obtain further data^or the treatment of the subject 

It will be sufficient to indicate here how, in ancient geological periods, 
when hot springs were probably more abundant, there may have been 
local hot-house climates which would serve to explain such difficulties in 
connection with fossil floras as the occurrence of tropical or sub-tropical 
plants in the supposed glacial beds of Talchir age. 

In the Hutar coal field in the vicinity of the village of Thatha 

(called Kokraha on the map), when examining" the 
Hot spring at Thatha. ^ . . 

bed of the Thatha river, my attention was attracted 

by a strong sulphurous odour to a copious outburst of hot water, of the 

existence of which I had no previous intimation. Here the spring is 

distinctly connected with a marked disturbance of the Barakar beds, and 

the occurrence of a strong ridge of pseudomorphie quartz or fault rock, 

which is coincident with a line of fracture described on another page. 

( 20 ) 


The highest temperature of tliis spring is ISTF. There is here a 

strong confervoid growth which forms felt-like 
Temperature. . '^ 

masses in the pools warmed hy the water, but I 
did not observe any modification of the herbaceous or arboreal vegetation. 

Mr. Forbes in his Settlement lieport says that he only knows of one 
hot spring in Palamow, which is at Mundul in tuppeh Bari, and of 
which the temperature is 180°F. As I understood from him that he 
had not himself visited the spot, I am inclined to believe that the locality 
given to him may have been Mundul, otherwise known as Jodah, which 
is however in tuppeh Durjag, and is not far from Thatha, and that there- 
fore the present spring was meant. There is also a Mundul in tuppeh 
Bari, and hence perhaps the confusion arose. I think I should most 
probably have heard, when in that tuppeh, if there had been a distinct hot 
spring in Bari. 

In the Tatapani field in the Sirguja district west of the Kun- 
hur, the hot springs have given a name to the 
^Hot springs at Tata- ^iHagg, and also to the tuppeh or parganah in 
which they occur. 

They constitute, from their number and their copious outpourings, a 
very remarkable, and, in this part of India at least, a unique display. 
They are all arranged with one exception on, or in, the immediate vici- 
nity of a strong ridge f)f pseudomorphic quartz and breccia, 'which evi- 
dently marks a line of fracture, since a little further west it cuts off and 
bounds the coal measures, while to the east in the Hutar field the 
faulted boundary is on exactly the same line of strike ; and although in 
the former case the downthrow is on the north and in the latter on the 
south, the line of fracture along which the movement of subsidence of 
the coal measures took place, in both cases respectively, may be iden- 
tical, but the continuity has not yet been fully established, as the inter- 
vening sections have not been examined. This agreement in strike, vide 
map, is probably something more than a mere coincidence, and accordingly 
attention is here directed to it with a view to future examination. 

( 21 ) 


It is Dot easy to say how many distinct active springs there are at 

Tatapanij but there were seen by me certainly not 
Number of outlets. , • i i • i j i • t 

less than a score, besides which there are indi- 
cations of many others whose action has been either temporarily or 
wholly suspended. 

As a rule, these springs rise in small basins with a bottom formed 
of large-grained quartz sand. Round the edges of these basins there 
is frequently an encrustation of silicious sinter. A strong odour of 
sulphuretted hydrogen pervades the atmosphere all round. 

Occasionally these springs have given rise to marshy and boggy 
ground all round, which is most treacherous, as it is generally covered 
with a thin upper crust which simulates firm ground. 

Proceeding from east to west, the Fahrenheit * temperatures in the 

successive basins were as follows : east 185°, 174°, 
Temperature. „ „ , 

162°, 130°, 170°, 144°, 168° (166° close to temple) 

(154°, 184°, 180°, in bed of stream) west. These were all taken in the 
early forenoon on a day near the end of March, when the sun was hot and 
there was no perceptible condensation of the vapour. Early on the fol- 
lowing morning the position of each spring was distinctly marked by a 
column of condensed steam. On this occasion the temperatures were 
somewhat different from what they had been the previous evening. In 
the bed of the stream one was 190°, while the spring close to the temple 
was 185°. The highest temperature observed was in a basin off the 
general line and north of the temple ; in it the thermometer registered 
196°. I think it probable that this spring is situated on a small 
branching fault, of the existence of which the neighbouring rocks afford 
some evidence. . 

The temple above alluded to was built over what was considered by 
the natives to be the hottest spring ; but that particular outlet being 
now closed, the temple has been allowed to fall into ruins. I was told 

^ Taken by a Negretti and Zambia's boiling-point tliermometei'. 

( 22 ) 


that the locality is not regarded as being one of particular sanctity. 
In any more civilised part of India, it would be assuredly a place of 
annual resort and the site of a mela. 

On the same line of strike and at a distance of 24 miles west- 
south-west of Tatapani, and 8 miles north of Pertabpur, there is 
another hot spring known to exist. From its name, Ganduani, its con- 
nection with gandak, or sulphur, is indicated. That a connection is 
believed by the natives to exist I learnt from the late Kaja of 
Sirguja, who first told me of the spring in 1871. Its position is marked 
on the Atlas sheet. 

Note. — The names Tataka, Thatha and Tatapani — all indicate the presence of hot 
springs. I have used the spelling of the maps, as there seemed to be a slightly different 
pronunciation in the case of Thatha, but the names have, of course, all the same origin and 



Section 1. — Inhabitants. 

In connection with the future development of the mineral resources 
of Palamow, it may be useful to make a few remarks on the leading 
characteristics of the population. 

Palamow being, as Mr. Forbes has pointed out, a sort of border 
land, is inhabited by both Aryan and non-Aryan peoples. The former, 
as is usually the case, occupy the open and cultivated parts, which, 
though smaller in extent, support a larger number of individuals than 
the wilder regions inhabited by the latter. In the portion of Palamow 
under description, which includes a large part of these wilder regions, 

the non-Aryans largely prevail, and as these 
Non -Aryan tribes. ti i n • i i 

tribes would most likely furnish the most consider- 
able proportion of the labour, it will be only necessary to describe them, 
the more particularly as the characters and capabilities of the various 
castes of Hindus do not, so far as I know, present any local or unusual 

Both the principal families of Kols are represented — the Mundas by 
about a dozen different tribes among which the 
Chiros, Kherwars, Korewas, Paharias and Agurias 
are the most numerous ; the Oraons by Oraons proper and Kol-lohars. 

The Kherwars and Chiros appear to me to be both indolent and 

wanting in stamina. The villages of the former 

Kherwars and Chiros. ,, . , ,. . i ii • i 

are generally excessively dirty, and their houses, 

notwithstanding the fact that building materials are generally abundant, 

are in a most miserable state of dilapidation. They are not likely to make 

good labourers ; but possibly they might improve somewhat if the weight 

of indebtedness to the money lenders, which now depresses them, were 

removed from their shoulders. 

{ U ) 


The Korewas and Paharias are wild and not very numerous tribes in 

Palamow, but are more abundant in Sirguja. They 
Korewas and Paharias. ti i 

are not hkely to be of much account as labourers. 

The Agurias are chiefly iron-smelters, but some have taken to 

cultivation. Colonel Dalton refers them to the 
Aguria iron-smelters. 

Munda family, while the Kol-lohars are considered 

to be Oraons. The statement made by Mr. Justice Phear in a memoran- 
dum* on the iron of Karanpura, that the Agurias are a low caste of 
Aryans, therefore is probably incorrect. But there is no doubt that the 
Loharias proper, or workers in iron, of whom also there are representa- 
tives iu Palamow, are Hindus. Occasionally, I believe, these latter smelt, 
as well as refine and work up iron. 

All these artificers would be useful and could be easily trained to 
manipulate iron ores in the European fashion. But for general purposes 
the Oraons would furnish the best and most abundant labour. 

In Palamow the Oraons are found in various parts ; those in the more 

open tracts having lost many of their tribal 
Oraons. • ■ t m 

characteristics. In Toree they appeared to me to 

be tolerably numerous. From other parts of Chutia Nagpur they could 

be attracted in large numbers if necessary. At present a steady current 

of them flows in the direction of Assam and Cachar ; the only means of 

arresting which, and preventing depopulation of wide areas in Chutia 

Nagpur, will be to give them remunerative occupation nearer their homes. 

Section 2. — Boads and Carriage. 

This section might almost be written in the words, mutatis mutandis, 

of Aldrovandius^ famous chapter concerning the owls of Iceland. 

Of jowc^a -bridged roads there is not a single example in the whole 

area. The few roads that do exist are little better 
Principal roads. 

than mere fair-weather tracks. Of these the 

^ See Appendix F. to a paper read before the Bengal Social Science Association on the 
24th July 18V6. 

( 25 ) 


principal are from Daltonganj to Ranclii, and from the same place to 
Dehree on the Sone. But few of the others are practicable for carts, 
and the remainder can only b6 used by pack cattle and elephants. 

Except in Burkhol, I did not anywhere see any indigenous wheeled 
vehicles ; these too were of the rudest description. Carts find their way 
along the two above-mentioned roads into Daltonganj ; and recently 
timber has been drawn in carts from Sirguja over a track where carts 
never passed before. Judging from what I saw, I should say the average 
rate of progression of these carts was under three miles a day. 

The export trade in grain is wholly carried on by means of pack 

Export trade by pack hullocks, which are mostly of a small and weakly 

*'^**^®" breed. The Oraons alone of all the tribes can be 

induced to carry banghies, the Kherwars and others carrying but half 

loads on their heads. 

Section 8. — Forests and Wild Animals. 

The forests of Palamow do not, I believe, contain much valuable 
timber at present, but the strict conservancy which has been initiated in 
parts of Bari, Durjag, Barasand, Sima, &c., promises a supply in the future. 

Sal timber is by no means generally distributed. I often searched 
in vain for single examples in mixed jungle. In other places the soil 
does not seem to be well suited to its free development. However, 
it is possible that it may be larger and more plentiful in parts of the 
hills unvisited by me. Most excellent sal timber is now being cut in a 
neighbouring tract of Sirguja. 

Teak, as is the case, to the best of my belief, throughout the Chutia 
Nagpur Division, does not occur. 

The Forest Department, having been for several years in possession 
of the Palamow forests, will no doubt be able to state how far a trade 
in timber is likely to aid the traffic on the proposed line of branch 
railway. The ordinary jungle products, such as lac, kath or catechu, 
fibres, &c., need not be described here. 
( 36 ) 


Wild animals. — Palamow has not a good reputation as a place for 
sport, but I have reason for believing that in certain limited areas wild 
animals are by no means scarce. Tigers- and leopards were chiefly to 
be heard of in the vicinity of the Koel, where it crosses the Hutar field 
and thence westward to the Kunhur. 

Mr. Forbes speaks of the chetah, or hunting leopard, having been at 
onetime abundant, but the leopards seen by me, whether alive or dead, 
were all the so-called panther {Felis pardus). Bears are rare, as also are 
wolves. I saw but one pair of the latter near Latiahar. The sambhur 
and spotted deer are not common in the parts visited by me, but nilgai 
are abundant in certain tracts, as also are barking deer and the four-horned 
antelope. The gazelle is frequently seen in the west, and occurs close to 
Daltonganj. A pair were seen near Latiahar, longitude 84=^ 35' E., which 
is, I believe, the most eastern locality where this animal has as yet 
been observed. Gaur, or bison so-called, are found on the ranges and pats 
to the south. Occasionally they appear in the valleys as at Barkhol. 

Section 4. — Cultivation. 

The scarcity of tanks and lunds, and the unwillingness or inability of 
the people to provide irrigation for themselves — which extends, according 
to Mr. Forbes, to a disinclination even to repair temporary ruptures in 
bunds which have in some cases been made by the hired labour of a parti- 
cular tribe called' Nunias — account for the inferiority and uncertain yield 
of the crops and the generally impoverished state of the country. 

Of the grain crops which are raised, no doubt a large proportion is 
exported, the people being too poor to use them themselves, even when 
they have not been wholly hypothecated, as they commonly are, to the 
mahajans on account of advances. The jungle products are the great 

Jungle products. stand-by, and furnish a means of subsistence to 

many thousands for several months of each year. 

The reservation of large tracts of forest has, however, curtailed the 

areas accessible to the people, and thus in bad seasons the relief to 

be obtained from these jungle products is less than it was formerly. 

( :27 ) 


Mr. Forbes seems to think that the cotton crop is the one most 
likely to flourish and yield a good return under 
proper cultivation. But for this to be successful 
a better class of seed sliould be imported. 

The majority of cotton-bearing plants which I saw averaged under 
a foot in height. Not only is the variety grown a stunted miserable 
one, but it appears to be particularly subject to the attacks of insects ; 
at least such was the case with the crops grown last season after the 
short rainfall. In at least 75 per cent, of the cotton fields seen by me, 
I noticed that the hols had not been collected, but had fallen to the 
ground where they were left to rot, the reason being, as I was informed, 
that the kernels had been eaten by grubs, and that it was therefore 
impossible to clear the fibre from the broken fragments of the seed 
shells in the rude machines [chirhis) used for that purpose. 

The damage done to the kharif crops by drought, to the rabi 
crops by rain coming too late and by heavy hoar- 
frosts, and finally to the crop of mhowa flowers 
by rain, while the collection of a most abundant harvest was going on, 
all contributed to make up during the last twelve months in Palamow a 
tale of loss and consequent suffering, without absolute famine, which it is 
most unpleasant to contemplate. 

In Mr. Forbes^ report and the appendices will be found full in- 
formation as to the principal crops grown and the 

Crops how raised and amount of exports from which deductions may be 
exported. ^ "" 

drawn as to the probable amount of grain traffic. 
The immediate result of an increased prosperity among the people 
would, perhaps, be a diminution in the quantity of grain exported. 
But with the introduction of capital and improved systems of cultiva- 
tion, this would be far more than recouped in a very few years. 

Section 5. — Climate. 

The comparative healthiness of a district in which it is proposed to 
establish iron-works or other similar undertakings should be no mean 
( 28 ) 


factor in the determination of the preliminaries of the project. So far 
as my personal experience goes, Palamow is the healthiest part of Chutia 
Nagpur. The amount of sickness in my camp was most conspicuously 
less than it has been in other parts of the division. 

But the very different amount of sickness which I witnessed and 
participated in two successive seasons in Sirguja warns me from attempt- 
ing to generalise on the personal experience of but one season in 
Palamow. The balance of testimony, however, seems to indicate that 
the healthiness of Palamow is above the average of similar hilly 
districts. The highland pats might be advantageously used as local 

Note. — It may, perhaps, be thought by some readers that the topics discussed in this mis- 
cellaneous chapter are hardly suitable to the pages of a geological report. But their 
connection with the question of the development of the mineral resources is not likely to be 
denied, and no other justification for their appearance here is, perhaps, necessary. There are 
many other subjects connected with the natural productions, t^e history and the antiqui- 
ties and the ethnology which might be dwelt on at some length, but without the above 
justification. The introduction of all such subjects, therefore, is scrupulously omitted, and 
the information on the first- mentioned is conveyed in as few and as brief paragraphs as 
is consistent with a reasonable amount of clearness. 

29 ) 



Formations Represented. 

At one time ifc seemed probable that the termination of the series of 
coal fields in the Damuda valley would be found to be exactly coincident 
with marked changes in the characters o£ the Gondwana rock-groups, 
and that this would at once become apparent as new areas in the country 
farther west were brought under examination. Already in the Karan- 
pura fields the central groups so well developed in the Raniganj field 
had been found to be diminished in thickness and modified in character. 
The result of the examination of the various coal-fields of Palamow has 
been to confirm the general truth of the view thus entertained, but the 
change has proved to be not quite so abrupt and is not coincident with 
the termination of the Damuda valley, but takes place farther west. 

Had it been abrupt, the difficulty in correlating the several groups 

would have been great, as the aid which might 
Correlation of rock 

groups not aided by have been afibrded by the presence of distinguish- 
xossils B.S vet 

able fossils has been denied to us for the present. 

Fossil plants are not indeed wholly absent, as will appear on a future 

page, but they have not been available for purposes of determining 

the ages of the rocks in which they occur. The geological formations 

and sub-division of formations represented within the limits of the area 

herein described are as follows (in descending order) : — 

Superficial deposits. 


Deccan trap. 

C TJPPEE Mahadeva series. 

Gondwana 3 /^Pancliet group, 

SYSTEM. i T ] Lower „ ■) 

^ LowEE ■< [Damuda sEEiEs. 


Metamorphic series. 
( 30 ) 


Before proceeding" to the detailed account of the above sedimentary 
formations under the headings of the different fields in which they occur, 
it will be well, with the aid of the accompanying small-scale map, to 
indicate generally the extent of their distribution so far as it is known 
throughout the whole area, and to point out the resemblances and 
relations which exist between the deposits of identical age in more or less 
widely-separated localities. But first it will be necessary to give a 
general sketch of the crystalline or metamorphic rocks which, form 
the floor of the basins or troughs in which the more recent rocks have 
been deposited. 

Section 1. — Metamorphic Series. 

A considerable number of observations on these basal rocks have 
been accumulated during the season, in consequence of its having been 
necessary to make traverses in various directions, in order to examine 
deposits of iron ores at a distance from the coal fields, and also for the 
purpose of searching for outlying areas of sedimentary rocks. Although 
the observations made under these circumstances are therefore of a some- 
what disconnected character, sufficient has been seen to show that the 
detailed examination of these rocks will not improbably throw much light 
on the origin of the leading structural features of the country. 

So far as is certainly known, the metamorphic rocks of this area belong 
to but one great series, but there are some marked features in the distri- 
Distribution of litho- bution of the several lithological varieties. In the 
logical varieties. ^^g^^ massive granitic rocks with abundant veins 

of pegmatite and epidotic granite prevail. In association with them 
there is an enormous thickness of crystalline limestone which will 
presently be described. The economic importance of this rock will also 
secure for it some further notice in the proper section. 

Towards the centre of the area, west of Munkah, there is a complete 
„ , , ,. , change in the character of the rocks. Hornblendic 

Hornblendic rocks. 

gneisses are there the most common form met with. 

Many of these have a markedly trappean aspect, and are sometimes not 

( 31 ) 


to be distinguished from trap. In association witli these rocks occur all 
the principal deposits of magnetic iron ore. 

Farther west, in the neighbourhood of Ramkunda, a black micaceous 
granite, which is occasionally syenitic, occurs over 
a considerable tract of country. To the south of this 
the granitic rocks are chiefly remarkable for including very fine veins of 
stilbite. Towards the Kunhur the hornblendic gneisses disappear, and 
among the granitic rocks a coarsely porphyritic variety becomes the 
most prominent form. Throughout the whole area schistose rocks are 

In the country south of our main area rise several lofty ranges of hills 
which are principally formed of metamorphic rocks, but on some of them 
deposits of sandstone, trap, or laterite occur, forming distinctly marked 
caps. The Gulgul and Neturhat pats belong to this latter class and 
have bases of highly granitoid gneiss. 

To the above general sketch of the distribution it will be well to add 

some further details. Approaching the Aurunga 

valley by the road from Balumath, a very distinct 

ridge of fault rock is met with crossing the road near Pukree and 

striking thence to west-south-west. A mile farther on, at Olherpat, 

there is a considerable exposure of limestone. This 

Limestone. . ,i n i • i i i • n 

consists partly oi highly calcareous gneiss and 

partly of vein-like lenticular masses of crystalline limestone. For about 

a mile and a quarter, or nearly up to the village of Deredag, the road 

crosses the outcrops of similar rocks, the strike being to about 35° east 

of north, with varying, but high, dips. 

In the Chunhat stream the limestone is clearly seen to be cut off by 
the fault, whose presence was indicated by the already mentioned fault 
rock. Close to the village of Chunhat the water charged with lime 
from this source falls over a step in the gneiss, and the evaporation of the 
spray and drip, extended over a long period of time, has resulted in the 
( 32 ) 


formation of a very considerable bank of calcareous tuff which is well 
known to the people^ though the limestone rock. 

Calcareous tuff. 

as such, IS not. 

On the low plateau ground to the south of this position the lime- 
stones, flung westward by the fault, reappear and are seemingly richer 
and purer than they are at Olherpat. The following is the result of an 
examination of a sample from this southex'n locality by Mr. Mallet :— « 

Carbonate of lime . . . . . . . . 91'9 

„ magnesia . . '2 

Oxide of iron and alumina '7 

Insoluble 7-2 


The small proportion of carbonate of magnesia and the purity in other 
respects indicate a high value for this limestone as a flux for iron-smelting. 

The Hmestones are covered up on the west by Barakar grits and 

conglomerates, upon which too, in the neighbour- 
Continuation of fault. 1 T n , J rr l -l • • 

hood 01 a stream, a tunaceous deposit is in process 
of formation. The continuation of the fault is marked near the village 
of Koorean by a ridge of fault rock which is surrounded on all sides by 
Barakar beds, those on the north dipping away at high angles. This is 
to be attributed rather to subsidence along the old line of fracture than 
to the original fault, which, in all probability, operated before the deposi- 
tion of the Barakars. 

Had it taken place subsequently, its effects, considering the fling it 
has certainly given to the limestones, should be distinctly traceable in 
the distortion of the ironstones and carbonaceous shales beyond Lejang, 
but no such distortion is to be seen. 

Along the eastern margin of the field the bounding rocks are chiefly 
granitic gneisses with veins of quartz and pegmatite. Inside the 
margin a small inlier of these rocks is exposed one mile north-west of 

» This is shewn by the name of the village, which is derived from chuna (limo). 

c ( 33 ) 


the village of Seruk. To the north of the field at Balu-naggar there 
are several hills connected with the higher regions bordering the valley, 
which are formed chiefly of thin-bedded hornblendic gneisses, with veins 
of coarsely crystalline pink granite and pegmatite, and capped by 
Barakar pebble conglomerates, as will be described on a future page. In 
the valley of the Tataka^ to the west of this, the rocks consist chiefly of 
gneiss with pegmatite and epidote veins, but hornblendic and granitic 
rocks also occur. The general strike of these rocks is the same as that 
of the bounding face of the plateau and of the subordinate ranges, being 
about east-north-east to west-south-west. 

A very peculiar form of gneiss, which I at first mistook for indurated 

„ , ,., . Barakar sandstone, occurs in that portion of the 
Sandstone-like gneiss. 

Sukri which lies to the north-west of Toobed. 
Foliation is obscure, and the face of the rock shews lenticular masses and 
strings of coarsely granular structure, which closely simulate the irregular 
texture of certain Barakar sandstones. 

These rocks are cut into a deep gorge by the Sukri and are in places 

_ , eroded into pot holes of considerable dimensions. 

Pot-holes. ^ 

The rocks which surround the remainder of the 

western extension of the Aurunga field consist mainly of varieties of 
granitic and hornblendic gneiss, about which there is nothing of import- 
ance to be recorded. 

On the southern side of the field the metamorphic rocks have a 

generally similar character. It is noteworthy that 
Calcareous gneiss. . . . , ,. 

in the Aurunga river section, a short distance north 

of the Daltonganj and Ranchi road near the village of Bhoosor, the 
gneisses are somewhat calcareous, and that they are on about the position 
of the south-west continuation of the direction of strike of the above- 
described limestones of Chunhut. 

Besides the inlier already mentioned north-west of Seruk, there are 
several other localities where metamorphic rocks 


occur inside the boundary. In the Sukri section 
( 34 ) 


east of Mooroop there is a small exposure of granitic gneiss withia the 
limits of the Barakars. 

Near the villages of Bliidee and Ledupali gneiss occupies two small 
areas within the boundary of the Talchir rocks. Reference to the map 
will shew the position and relative importance of all these. 

In the valley of the Aurunga to the north-west of the Aurunga 

„ ,, ,. field the metamorphic rocks consist chiefly of 

Homblendic gneiss. _ •' 

hornblendic gneisses^ and in some cases, as in the 
neighbourhood of Kedh and Bansdeeh, of hornblendic rocks with a 
cannon ball structure which may be really intrusive diorite so far as any- 
thing is certainly known to the contrary. In association with these 
rocks occur all the principal deposits of magnetite as at Lunkah, 
Rajhera, &c. These will be fully described in the economic chapter. 

In the Maila river section, half a mile east of Satbarwah, there is an 
exposure of a considerable thickness of limestone, 

bamah.'^"'' "^^'' ^^*- and calcareous gneisses. They do not appear to be 
nearly so pure or clean as those in the Toree 

parganah above described. A fair average sample yielded to Mr. Mallet 

the following percentage composition : — 

Carbonate of lime . 60*8 

„ magnesia 16"0 

Alnmina and oxide of iron 5'0 

Insoluble . 182 


This would be a very indifferent flux for iron-smelting, but it is possi- 
ble some portions may prove to be of better quality. 

The hilly ground on both sides of the Koel above its junction with 
the Aurunga, and thence, up to and beyond Daltonganj, consists of similar 
rocks, with which granitic varieties are occasionally interpolated. This 
region has not yet been thoroughly explored ; but so far as is at present 
known, the only sedimentary rocks found there occur as a cap of arkose 
grit, which forms the plateau of the Chongah hill station. 

( 35 ) 

36 ball: geology of auhunga and hutar coal fields. 

On the hill east o£ the village of Kokaroh there is a vein of white 
rock consisting partly of calc-spar and partly of 
^^Labradoritewith calc ^ j^jj^eral which has been analysed by Mr. Mallet, 
who regards it as an abnormal form, of labradorite.^ 
Passing now to the description of the rocks in the area surrounding 
the Hutar field, it is found that they present no general characters 
which would serve to distinguish them from those in the neighbour- 
hood of the Aurunga field, but there are several points about them 
deserving of notice. At the north-east end of the field they are 

traversed by clearly defined trap dykes, no similar 
Trap dykes. 

intrusions having been met with elsewhere. 

On the south a lofty range which runs east and west, and is continuous 
with the one forming the southern limit of the Aurunga field, is formed 
of granitic gneiss, with quartz and granite veins of ordinary character. 
This ridge is very possibly connected with a line of faulted upheaval. 

North-west of the field in the region surrounding Ramkunda, the 

metamorphie rocks are much decomposed, and there 

Neiglibourliood of ^^,q vfide tracts of raviny, unreclaimed land, covered 

by sal and bush jungle. The map well illustrates 

the character of the network of streamlets and ravines abounding in 

that neighbourhood. Where rock has been conserved, it mostly appears 

in the shape of bosses and tors or a black syenite-looking rock, some of 

which is indeed lithologieally true syenite, but more commonly the 

colouring mineral is black mica and not hornblende. 

In this region, south of the village of Manjuri and at the mouth 

of the stream which, rising in the Bijka peak, 

Stilbite. . , . • 1 1 • n 

joins the Atee river, there occur several veins of 

stilbite. This mineral, though well known to occur in metamorphie as 

well as volcanic rocks, has been but rarely met with in India in this 

association. I am unaware of the existence of any record of its having 

been found elsewhere in this country in equal profusion and beauty. 

» It is partially decomposable by HCl. The filtrate contains alumina and lime. It 
does not gelatinize with acid. It contains no water. Hardness 6" 5. ' 

{ 36 ) 


Three distinct veins were observed : the principal one occurs about 
80 yards in from the mouth of the stream. It is from half an inch to ten 
inches wide^, with a Aertieal underlie, and strike of about west-20°-north. 
Tiioug-h for the most part the vein Hes parallel to the planes of foliation 
of the pink porphyritic gneiss which encloses it, it does not invariably 
do so. The mineral has a laminated^ somewhat hackly structure, and is 
of a bright salmon-coloured hue with a pearly lustre. Associated with 
it, there are plates of quartz pseudo-morphic after micaceous iron. 

A second vein occurs close to the mouth of the stream. It is in 
places one foot wide, and the combination in it of the stilbite with the 
pseudo-morphic quartz produces a very beautiful structure. 

A third smaller vein was noted in the bed of the Atee. Very 
possibly there may be others also. 

Veins of pink pegmatite and epidote occur in some abundance also 
in the vicinity of the stilbite. 

West of Hutar field the sections in the Supahi exhibit a considerable 
variety of the ordinary forms of gneiss with veins 

Supahi river sections. ^ _ ^ 

of granite, pegmatite and quartz. Hornblendic 
rocks are there more rarely represented, but are by no means wholly 
absent. Towards the valley of the Kunhur coarse porphyritic gneis 
comes in abundantly often forming considerable ridges. 

Traverses made southwards from the region above described to the 

Neturhat and Gulgul pats or plateaux did not 
The pats. 

reveal the presence of any metamorphic rocks 
meriting particular or special notice. It may be stated, however, that the 
face of Neturhat on the north is principally formed of a massive felspathic 
granite, in which foliation is either very obscure or wholly non-existent. 

Rocks referable to the sub-metamorphic series are not represented in 
Sub-metamorphic se- *^^^ ^^®^^ ^^^ ^^1 ^ f^^ miles off to the south and 
ries absent. south-west they are found in the neighbourhood 

of the Bisrampur coal field in the district of Sirguja. 

( 37 ) 



§ECTiON 2. — Talchir Group. 

GoNDWANA System: 
The following table indicates the geographical distribution of the 
Gondwana rock groups 'in Palamow and the neighbouring portions of 
the adjoining districts :— 

Table sJioming the distribution of the Gondwana roch groups in the coal fields 
of Palamow and adjoining areas. 












Mahadeva ... 

Mahadeva ... 







Eanigunj ... 


Barakar ... 

Barakar ... 



Barakar ... 

Barakar ... 

Barakar ... 


Talchir ... 

Talchir ... 



Talchir ... 

Talchir ... 

Talchir ... 


Besides the above there are several isolated areas both in Hazari- 
bagh and Palamow where the Talchir group only is represented. 

The Talchir rocks have recently, on account of the characters of 
their fossil contents, been degraded from their position as a series readily 
separable from all rocks of the Darauda series to that of a group under 
the widely-spreading embrace of the Gondwana system. But the very 
latest examination of their physical relations tends only to confirm the 
propriety of the* earlier classification. 

It is believed from the characters of the fossils that the coal mea- 
sures of Karharbari are really of this age in spite of lithological resem- 
blance to Barakars. On this particular case I offer at present no opinion, 
but can only say that in the many fields which I have examined the 

" Only the coal fields of the Hazaribagh district which are the nearest to Palamow 
are included here. 

( 38 ) 


Talchirs appear to me to be separated by a greater hiatus from the 
overlying coal measures than is implied by speaking of them respectively 
as being consecutive groups of the same series.* 

The Talchir rocks in our area, though nowhere exposed over so 
extensive a tract as they occupy in the Daltonganj field, are still, in all 
probability, widely spread under the newer deposits. 

Their presence is indicated by narrow marginal strips at separated in- 
tervals along the boundaries of the Aurunga field, and in more steadily con- 
tinuous exposures round the limits of the coal measures of the Hutar field. 
They occur also on the eastern margins of the Tatapani and Bisrampur fields. 
Several detached outliers in the vicinity of the Aurunga field are partly, 
or altogether, made up of rocks of this age, and at Satbarwah, in the bed 
of the Maila (or Mylee) river, they occupy an area of about three square 
miles, being unaccompanied there by any more recent deposits. 

As this Satbarwah area is about centrically situated with reference 

to the three coal fields of Daltonganj, Hutar and 
Talchirs at Satbarwah. , . . 

Aurunga, it can scarcely be regarded as pertaining 

more to one than to another. The rocks there occurring may, there- 
fore, most fittingly be described in this place. The fact of their exist- 
ence has already been noted by Mr. Hughes in his report on the Dal- 
tonganj field'' and by Mr. Forbes in his settlement report. 

The area occupied by these beds extends as an irregular strip for 
nearly five miles along the bed of the Maila, with an average width 
of about two-thirds of a mile. East of the village of Bari the boundary is 
concealed by alluvium, and it may be that the Talchir rocks extend for 
some distance under th.e cultivated plain in that neighbourhood. 

The ordinary varieties of sandstones, shales and boulder conglome- 
rates represent the group in this area ; but it is noteworthy that in some 
of the last-mentioned beds, in addition to rounded boulders of metamor- 

* This question has many points in common with the difficult one as to the limits of 
the terms 'genus ' and 'species.' 

" Memoirs, G, S. I., vol, VIII, page 22. 

( 39 ) 


phic rocks, larg-e-sized angular fragments of vein-granite and gneiss 
occur in some abundance. 

In the Daltonganj field Mr. Hughes estimates the thickness of the 

Talchirs at 500 feet. In the area under description 

they probably do not exceed a total of 300 feet. 

The members of this group, within the limits of the Aurunga and 

Hutar fields, possess lithological characters whichj 
Abnormal rocks. ... 

as a general rule, may be described as being 

normal. There are some exceptions to this rule, however, which merit 
particular notice. In the Aurunga field near Latiahar there are some 
sandy and fibrous shales, with papery carbonaceous layers, which for rea- 
sons given further on I refer to this age. In the Hutar field in some 
instances there is found to be in the boulder bed a preponderance of red 
(Vindhyan) quartzite boulders over those derived from the neighbouring 
metamorphie rocks. 

Besides the areas herein described it is not improbable that other 
detached patches of Talchirs may be found in the hilly broken ground 
surrounding the coal fields. 

Section 3. — Baeakar Geoup. 

The lithological characters of the rocks of this group vary very much 
in the different coal fields of Palamow. 

In the Daltonganj field Mr. Hughes found* that the typical Barakar 
sandstone of the eastern fields is replaced by " a false-bedded rock with 
fine and coarse layers of sand deposited often at an angle of 50° with 
the plane of the bedding." It is friable, earthy and slightly calcareous 
and consequently rather resembles a common form of sandstone in the 
Baniganj group than it does any normal Barakar form previously met with. 

In the Aurunga field the rocks of this group may, in general terms, 

Lithological characters ^^ described as being normal, perhaps even more so 

of Aurunga Barakars. ^-^^^ ^-^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Karanpura field. The ordi- 

« Memoirs, G. S. I., yoI. VIII,, page 333. 
( 40 ) 


nary forms of sandstone grits and conglomerates all occur, and huge seams, 
consisting largely of carbonaceous shale, are found at various horizons 
and with most irregular lateral extension. As will be amply exemplified 
in the detailed sections which are given below, the irregularity in the 
deposition of the various Barakar beds was extreme. Internal overlap 
exists on a large scale being very clearly shewn in certain closely ad- 
jacent sections, where beds are seen to thin out or expand, as the case 
may be, with extraordinary rapidity. The bottom beds are usually 
conglomerates, with small rounded pebbles of white quartz. Occasionally, 
however, these are replaced by what would be more properly denomi- 
nated as breccias, the fragments of quartz being sharply angular and 
quite unworn, in this respect resembling some of the coal-measm-e 
conglomerates of the Karharbari field. In the eastern parts of the field 
these lowest beds are often covered by white and pinkish, somewhat 
clunchy, clays. Occasionally, too, there are dark-red clays at about the 
same horizon, but sometimes these last occur at the very base, in which 
eases they might very probably be taken as belonging to the Talchir 
group, from which however they must, I think, be separated. 

Above this lower zone comes one of variable thickness, consisting 
of sandstones, carbonaceous shales and ironstones,which extends up to the 
base of the Raniganj group. In the sandstones next adjacent to the 
conglomerates concretionary masses of brown or red hsematites occur 
in considerable abundance. These are covered by an irregular sequence 
of carbonaceous shales (with coal), ironstones and sandstones, which in 
some instances, as at Toobed on the north, and in 
some of the sections of the Aurunga and Ghugree 
on the south, have completely overlapped both the iron-bearing sand- 
tones and the conglomerates of the lower zone, and rest directly and 
naturally on the metamorphic rocks. 

In the neighbourhood of Latiahar this upper zone has a very much 

diminished thickness, and west of the Aurunga has 

wholly disappeared, for we find there that the 

Mahadevas rest directly on the lower conglomerates. How far this 

( 41 ) 


is attributable to original limitation of the area of deposit, how far to 
denudation, is uncertain ; but that some denudation took place is pro- 
bable, though there are no very clear sections showing unconformable 

The maximum thickness of Barakar beds in the Aurunga field is 
Thickness. about 1,500 feet. 

As a coal-bearing group the rocks of this field take but low rank ; 
for although the quantity of coaly matter is 
great, the quality is markedly inferior to that 
of the coal in the other fields. 

Although the Barakar beds in certain tracts throughout the field 

do not show signs of much disturbance, great 
Disturbance. i i -i • • p mi ■ • 

local tilting IS 01 common occurrence. This is 

particularly found to be the case along the natural boundaries, and 

appears to be attributable to lateral thrust and compression, produced in 

connection with several considerable main lines of fault. 

In many of the sections a vertical contact between the bottom beds 
of the Barakars and the metamorphic rocks has been thus estab- 

In the Hutar field, although its position is so closely adjacent to that 

of Aurunga, the coal measures present many 
Lithological cliarac- 
ters o£ Barakars in points of striking contrast to those just described. 

In the east of the field the Talchirs are overlaid 

by sandstones and conglomerates, which form hills and plateaux having 

a stronger structural resemblance to those formed of Mahadevas than 

have the hillocks and ridges which usually characterise areas where 

Barakar rocks are found. 

In the Dauri river section., and thence westwards to the extreme 
limits of the field, a basal zone of sandstones and conglomerates with 
coal seams first appears, — no trace of coal being seen in the scarps of 
the hills and sections which are passed before that river is reached. 
{ 42 ) 


To this basal zone the whole of the coal is confined, and not only is 

^ , there this contrast with the state of things inst 

Coal zone. , o j 

described, but the coal seams are themselves of a 
completely different character. Instead of the thick irregular seams, 
which consist largely of carbonaceous shales as above described, we here 
meet with seams which are generally thin, sometimes lenticular, and 
consisting of a more compact and uniform material which is sometimes 
a high class fuel. These seams are parted from each other by massive 
beds of sandstone, the whole being contained in a zone, very possibly not 
exceeding 200 feet in thickness, which exists as a margin, internal to 
the Talchirs, all round the western portion of the field, except at those 
points where it has been cut off by faults. 

On the right or eastern side of the Koel river the high ground is 
formed of sandstone grits and conglomerates, which, as has been above 
stated, overlap on to the Talchirs at the eastern end of the area. At 
one time I was inclined to suppose that some ferruginous beds which 
occur near and at the top of the rocks forming these highlands mio-ht 
possibly belong to the Mahadeva series, but I was afterwards compelled 
to class them all as Barakars. 

The thickness o£ the group as now existing in this portion of the field 

is probably under 600 feet. West of the Koel a 

Thickness west of „ • i i. i i ji , . 

Koel. curious cJiange takes place, the upper overlappmo- 

zone of sandstones and conglomerates thins out and 
no longer forms hills and plateaux. In the extreme west it is represented 
by but a narrow zone of sandstones and conglomerates which overlies the 

coal-bearing zone, and is overlaid by a considerable 
Koel^bnomal.^^^ ° but varying thickness of beds forming a syncHnal 

basin, and of which the determination of the age 
and affinities has been a considerable source of doubt and difficulty. 
Though in places somewhat resembling true Barakars, their more 
constant lithological characters may' be described as being unique. 
They consist of coarse grits and conglomerates, the latter containing not 
uufrequently fragments of metamorphic rocks, and not being composed 

( 43 ) 


exclusively of rounded or angular white qiaartz pebbles, as is commonly 
the case with normal Barakars. Associated with them there are green, 
somewhat clunchy, clays, and occasionally soft yellowish sandstones. 
This group is overlaid by Mahadevas, which are precisely similar in 
lithological and structural characters to the rocks of the same age in 
the Aurunga and Karanpura fields. How far the superposition by 
these Mahadevas is strictly conformable, it is difficult to say ; but that 
the thickness overlaid varies very considerably in difierent places is 
sufficiently obvious, as will be seen by reference to the map. 

From their position the rocks of this zone might be taken to 
represent the E-aniganj group, but the lithological characters of the 
grits and conglomerates are a bar in the way of this supposition, normal 
Raniganj rocks being strongly characterised by the fineness and 
uniformity of their texture. To the grits which occasionally occur in 
the Panchets (Lower Panchets of old classification), they present a 
certain but not sufficiently close resemblance for satisfactory correlation. 
The alternative left is to regard them as a local 
Sub-group of Barakars with special characters. In 
favour of the adoption of this view, there is the fact that irregularities 
produced by thinning out being excepted, they rest with perfect 
uniformity on the beds of the lower zone, and that a few cases were 
met with where green elunchy beds appeared to occupy a position 
within the limits of the lower zone, thus preceding, and as it were 
anticipating, the coming more general change. 

In the Tatapani field west of the Kunhur, so far as my brief 
examination of it enabled me to form an opinion, 
similar rocks occupy the position of the intermedi- 
ate sandstone and conglomerate zone which has there died out, and rest 
directly on a thin bottom zone of sandstones, carbonaceous shales and coal. 

On the map the limits of this sub-group in that portion of the 
Hutar field which lies west of the Koel is indicated by a dotted line. 
I have not thought it to be advisable to distinguish it by a separate 
colour at present. 
( 44 ) 


Including this sub-group with the lower rocks of undoubted Barakar 
age, there is a total maximum continuous thickness o£ 2,750 feet in 
Hutar field, the line of section being measured in the valley of the 
Supahi from Toleh or Tiharo to the foot of the Doothoo Hills. 

Section 4. — Raniganj Geoup. 

Since within our area representatives of this group are alone found 
in the Aurunga field, it will be better, as avoiding unnecessary reiteration, 
to refer to section 3 of Chapter V for a description of them. The maxi- 
mum thickness I estimate at from 900 feet to 1,000. 

Section 5. — Panchet Geoup. 

The above remark applies to the rocks of this group also. An 
account of the Aurunga field Panchets will be found in section 4 of 
Chapter V. The maximum thickness does not exceed 700 feet and is 
possibly less. 

Section 6. — Mahadeva Series. 

In the table given on page 38 it will be seen that this series 
is represented in all the fields from Karanpura to Tatapani which lie on 
the same line of strike. Not only is the correlation fully established by 
the identity of lithologieal characters, but the physical features of the 
successive plateaux or groups of hills occur with an extraordinary repeti- 

Deposits of the several *^°° ^^ minutise. The conclusion from these facts, 
fields once continuous. that these now detached areas are the remnant of 
a once continuous deposit seems to be unavoidable. 

The lithologieal characters which are thus constant for the distance 

Lithologieal charac mentioned are somewhat different from those of 
*^^'^' the deposits in the more eastern fields of Bokaroh 

and Eaniganj. Notable in this respect is the scarcity of cono-lomerates 
and the absence of that form to which the name of pudding stone mio-ht 
be applied. On the other hand, there is a very considerable resemblance 

Eesemblance to Hingir between these rocks both structurally and lithologi- 
^^^*^^'- cally, and those of the Hingir field, whose fossil 

( 45 ) 

46 ball: geology of aueunga and htjtar coal MELns. 

contents have determined their age as belonging to the Kamthi- 
Raniganj groups. This lithological resemblance is even strikingly 
apparent in the hand specimens placed side by side in th,e Museum. 
But for the existence of representatives of the Raniganj and Panchet 
groups in the Aurunga. field and the obvious identity of these highest 
rocks with those in the Karanpura field, I should have been at first 
inclined to regard these rocks as being identical with the Hingir rocks. 
The reflection suggested is that either the Hingir rocks are separable 
into two groups, or that they indicate a coalescence or blending of the 
characteristics of two groups which in this area are separated by a 
distiuct interval. The geological history of other countries furnishes us 
with cases parallel to the latter. The fact indicates the difficulties 
which will be experienced in relegating these often unfossiliferous rocks 
which occur in the wide region to the west and south-west to their 
proper positions in the geological sequence. 

Along this central line of distribution there can be little doubt that 

„, ,. „ , , , the general surface of the Mahadevas before beino- 

Elevation or top beds ° >=> 

of Mahadevas. denuded stood at a pretty continuous and equable 

level of rather more than 2,000 feet, i.e., at the same level as that of the 
bounding plateaux. 

The correlation of certain sandstones which occur as caps on some 

of the hill tops and ridges in the neighbourhood of the fields, more 

particularly on those south of the Aurunga, has 
Age of hill capping 

sandstones unascertain- not yet been finally accomplished, and it is to be 


regretted that there has as yet been no time for doing 

so. . Prima facie, it might justly be anticipated that, wherever in the 

vicinity of the coal fields sandstones occur at elevations of, and over 2,000 

feet, they would prove to belong to the Mahadeva series. But the result 

of examination hitherto has been to demonstrate that, while the 

Damudas are represented by widely-separated deposits which occur at 

various elevations% the Mahadevas are restricted within very narrow 

» e. ff. in the Daltonganj, Chope, Itkuri and Kaxharhaxi fields. 

( 46 ) 


and easily defined north and south limits. Hocks which it is believed 
belong to the same ag-e do^ indeed, occur in the Rajmahal hills and in 
the Bisrampur field in Sirguja, but these are localities so far removed 
from the tract of country under consideration that they may for the 
moment be disregarded. The fact then to be accounted for is the 
Limits of zone of dis- Occurrence of these Mahadevas along a zone of 
ti-ibution. , country 240 miles long and from 3 to 12 miles 

wide, this maximum width being attained in but one place in the 
Karanpura field, which occupies about the centre of the whole length. 
Otherwise, the distribution may be indicated by saying that, exceptiuo- 
the areas in the Raniganj field, which are slightly to the south, it is con- 
fined within the 23° 40' and 23° 50' parallels of north latitude. 

"We have evidence, afforded by the present varied elevations of the 

Cause of the limita- ^oal measure deposits, and the frequent recurrence of 
*^°°- great lines of east and west faulting in the Damuda 

valley and more western coal fields, that great disruption of the orio-in- 
ally much more extensive and continuous deposits took place f and that 
while the broken and disturbed areas raised to the higher elevation 
have been much denuded, the principal coal fields have been preserved in 
consequence of their being protected in a trough produced perhaps by a 
fold in conjunction with the faulting. 

In this trough or valley a huge sluggish river, with little power for 
excavating, may have flowed and gradually deposited the sand and gravel 
which has formed the Mahadeva rocks. 

The past history of the Panchet group has not been alluded to, but 

Past lustorv of the ^^ seems probable that it is the same as that of the 

Panchets. older groups, though both it and the E-anigauj and 

Ironstone Shale group have this in common with the Mahadevas, that 

their distribution is restricted to a definite zone. There is, however, a 

* On a first glance at the map the clear definition of the valleys in which the Aurunga 
and Hutar fields respectively lie suggests that these were the original limits of deposition, 
but examination rather tends in the direction of showing that these bounding highlands are 
due to subsequent upheaval. 

( 47 ) 

48 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

much more marked unconformity between the Mahadevas and the 
underlying Panchets than there is between the other groups respect- 

The absence_, in the eastern fields^ of clearly marked unconformable 
Scarcity of coUateral Junctions showing disturbance is no doubt a diffi- 
evidence of disturbance. eulty in Connection with this theory^ as some evi- 
dence of the kind might reasonably be expected ; but if it be remembered 
that the disturbance need not have been very marked along the central 
axis of the subsided rocks*^ and that the scour of the supposed river could 
not be very great, as the average gradient throughout the 240 miles can 
scarcely have exceeded three feet per mile", the difficulty is considerably 

Moreover, it may be that the absence of the normal sequence of beds 
between the Barakars and Mahadevas in the west 

Possible denudation • 

of groups to west of may really be due to denudation. Thus to the west 

of Latiahar in the Aurunga field, and in the Hutar 
and Tatapani fields, the Mahadevas rest directly on the Barakars with- 
out the intervention of representatives of the groups found to the 

The maximum thickness of these beds is probably not less than 800 
feet, and may be nearer to 1,000. In the detailed 
accounts below I give measurements. With Mr. 
Hughes' estimate of the thickness of these rocks in the Karanpura field 
I cannot agree. " Three or, perhaps, two hundred feet,''' he writes, " would 
probably be its maximum development/' But in some of the scarps 
wholly formed of these rocks in the Karanpura field, a thickness of 500 
feet is frequently exposed, and in the Maudih hill the total thickness 
must be several hundred feet more. 

^ On the margins of tbe fields in those cases where there are no main bounding faults, 
there are often evidences in the tilted beds of great lateral crushing and pressiu-e. 

'' The Balumath watershed (■yj^^e p. 13) was very possibly formed after the deposition 
of the Mahadevas. If it existed before, the beds in the Karanpura and Aurunga fields, 
although the scarps are so similar, could not have been continuous. 

( 48 ) 

t)eccan trap and laterite. 49 

Section 7. — Deccan Trap and Laterite. 

In the localities where Deccau trap and laterite occur their relations 
are so intimate that it will be most convenient to describe them tog-e- 
ther. Neither are found within the limits of the coal fields. Indeed, low- 
level laterite seems to be wholly absent in this 
Low-level laterite ab- n j j.i i j. i • i i . , 

sent. area/ and the only trap which has as yet been 

met with occurs in the form of dykes which 
traverse the metamorphics and in places the Talehirs along the northern 
margin of the Hutar field, and belongs very possibly to an earlier 
period than the Deccan trap, but which must, however, have been subse- 
quent to the Talchir period. 

So far then as our present knowledge goes, these rocks are confined 
to the highest elevations on the south of the 
elevSns."" ^ * '^ subdivision and the neighbouring tracts of Lohar- 
dugga proper* It is possible that they may here- 
after be found at lower elevations ; but so far as they have hitherto been 
examined, the base of the trap does not occur in this region below 
elevations of about 3,000 feet above the Sea. The pats, or plateaux which 
have been visited by members of the Geological Survey so far are 
known by the following names: Neturhat, 3,356 feet; Lamtipat, 3,777 
feet ; Gulgulpat, 3,823 feet, Mailampat, 4,024. 

Neturhat. — The ascent of this plateau was made on the north side 

from the village of Pindra, which is situated south 

of Simah. The base is formed of a massive 
felspathic granite, which is exposed to within about 430 feet of the top. 
Laterite, fallen and to some extent reconsolidated, then appears, but 
it is doubtful whether it occurs there in original contact with the gneiss, 
since boulders of trap were found about 240 feet higher up or within 
180 feet from the summit, after which laterite only was seen. No 
trap was actually observed in situ near this line of ascent. Possibly 

» Detailed examination of the northern portion of the district, not yet visited, may 
perhaps reveal some. 

D ( 49 ) 


near some of the other routes there may be clearer sections of the scarped 
sides of the plateau. 

The laterite varies much in character. Sometimes it is pisolitic 

and argillaceous, containing but a small quantity 

of Ste^''^ character ^^ •^^,^^^ Occasionally, it is cellular with a larger 

percentage of ferruginous matter, passing thence 

into a remarkably rich brown ore (limonite),^ which contains 45-5 per 

cent, of iron, and is smelted by the Neturhat Aguriahs. 

The Neturhat plateau is about 4 miles long by 2| broad, but this is. 

likely to give an exaggerated idea of its area, which 

Summit of plateau. , i , « -i mi j i 

does not exceed about 7 square miles. Ihe central 

southern portion forms a basin traversed by a perennial stream, which 

runs from south to north. The laterite within this basin is covered 

by about a foot or so of soil, and the locality has already attracted two 

tea companies, as has already been mentioned. 

Lamtipdt is in close proximity to the Gulgulpat about to be describ- 
ed. The thicknesses of the trap and laterite respectively have not yet 
been ascertained, but both are believed to occur there. 

Gulgulpat.— On this hill, which is a long ridge, capped at its centre 

by a steep-sided mass of laterite and trap, gneiss 
Sections. -inn 

was round exposed up to a point about 260 feet 

below the summit, or in other words at an elevation of 3,563 feet above 
the sea. Fallen laterite then conceals the section ; but trap boulders 
were noted at least 90 feet higher, though no trap was seen in situ. 

The crowning layer of laterite is, perhaps, 60 feet thick and is much 
split and crevassed. The huge blocks so separated have, in some cases, 
fallen away from the mass and present a strange appearance, which is 
in some cases intensified by the creepers and luxuriant jungle which 
in part conceal their Titanic dimensions. Much of the laterite is 
pisolitic and similar in character to that of Neturhat, but I did not 

=> This I believe to be the ore called dherlur by the natives. 
( 50 ) 


meet with any ore of iron equal in quality to tlie Neturhat stone. So 
far as I know, none is worked. The only inhabitants on the slopes are 
semi-wild Korewahs^ whose very extensive hill clearances have laid low 
considerable tracts of forests. 

Mailampdt. — This plateau^ which has a considerable extent of flat 
ground on the top, has not as yet had its trap-laterite cap measured. 
Other well-known plateaux of considerable extent, but situated beyond 
our present limits, are those known as Jamira and Main pats. 

The important part played by these laterite caps as reservoirs for 
water from which a perennial supply finds its way 
ter reservoir.'^^*"'^^ ^^' ^^*^ *^® valleys cannot be over-estimated. On 
Neturhat, as stated above, the quantity is sufficient 
to form a running" stream, which traverses the centre of the basin. 
On Gulgulpat there is a spring coincident with the boulders of trap 
abovementioned, or 170 feet below the summit. It is not improbable 
that it marks the line of junction between the permeable laterite and 
impermeable trap. 

The occurrence of water on these pslts will give them great 
value as sites for tea plantations when the country is opened up and 
becomes more accessible. 

Section 8. — Superficial Deposits. 

On the accompanying maps the positions of the principal deposits of 
alluvial character, which conceal the underlying rocks, have been 
indicated in writing. The thickness of these deposits in the basin of the 
Koel is inconsiderable, but in the vicinity of the Kunhur there are 
deposits of some magnitude, both as regards their vertical and 
horizontal dimensions. 

Kunkur occurs abundantly in a few localities, which are principally, 

though not exclusively, on, or in close proximity 

to, rocks of Talchir age. But the amount available 

cannot be compared in abundance to the extraordinary rich deposits 

( 51 ) 


which occur in the neighbourhood of the Daltonganj field, and which 
have been remarked on by Mr. Hughes. 

The occurrence of calcareous tufi" at Chunhut, on the east of the 

Aurunga field, has already been alluded to when 

describing the crystalline limestones which have 

supplied the material of which it is formed. A similar deposit is found 

in the river Mungurdaha at the foot of a waterfall near Kokaroh. 

Limestones were also found in that neighbourhood. 

The principal, or at least the most noteworthy, deposit of diluvial 
origin in our area is a red sandy clay, which is directly derived from the 
Mahadeva sandstones, and forms a belt of unculturable land, much inter- 
sected by ravines and surrounding the base of the 
Mahadeva hills. Fallen tabular masses of the 
ferruginous sandstone occur sometimes enveloped in this deposit ; but 
more commonly, the result of erosion has been to isolate these masses and 
leave them perched on columns of stiff clay which often stand out at 
heights of ten feet or more above the general level of the country. The 
tabular blocks are frequently from 200 to 300 cubic feet in solid content, 
and when seen thus perched up above the low brush jungle present a very 

striking appearance. 

Section 9. — Faults. 

The great lines of fracture in our area, of which the faulted junctions 
afford evidence, are by their compass-bearings resolvable into three 
o-roups or systems. This arrangement, as will be seen, does not neces- 
sarily imply synchronism. So classified, they would stand as follows : — 

1. East to west faults. 

2. North of east to south of west faults. 

3. North of west to south of east faults. 

1. East and west system. 

Of east and west faults three have been clearly discriminated by their 

effects in the Aurunga field, and two in the Hutar field. The effect of the 

southern pair in the Aurunga field has been to lower the Mahadevas to the 

level of the Barakars, cutting out all but small remnants of the two 

( 52 ) 

FAULTS. -53 

intermediate g^roups (Raaigaoj and Panchet). They have in conjunction 

with the great north-west south-east fault facilitated the upheaval of the 

wedge-shaped areas of metamorphic rocics which give to the field, as 

mapped, an appearance which, at first sight, might be thought to be 

due to a huge fling and distortion of the field by the agency of the north- 

west south-east fault alone. Owing to the fact that where the more 

southern, east and west fault intercepts the north-west south-east one, and 

similarly where the more northern of the pair intercepts theLatiahar and 

Putkee fault, no lateral displacement in either case is discernible, the 

Eelative ages. question of relative ages becomes one of some 

difliciilty. The balance of probability, however, 

seems in favor of the north-west to south-east fracture having taken place 

first, and that the rocks were simply vertically upheaved in the angles when 

the east and west faulting took place. The other east- west fault of the 

Aurunga field is that which forms a portion of the northern boundary 

where it cuts off several patches of Barakars and is connected with the 

hot spring at Jarum. 

In the Hutar field one east and west fault has cut off the Barakars at 
Hutar field faults. ^orwaie, from whence westwards up to the Koel 

its course is indicated by fault rock and the hot 
spring at Thatha. West of the Koel its existence is somewhat doubtful, 
but its line of strike coincides with the base of the scarp of the Doothoo 
hills, and its existence there would help to account for a diminished 
thickness of the Barakars south, as compared with those north of the hills. 
The other east and west fault of this field is well marked near Binda 
where it has cut off the small patch of Talchirs and Barakars. Appa- 
rently it is older than the neighbouring fault of the north of west to 
south of east system. 

2. North of east to south of west systeyn. 
The first example of this system to be mentioned is the one which 
has flung the limestones described in section 1 of this chapter. Its course 
from Pukree to Korean strikes 15° north of east to W south of west. 

( 53 ) 


I have already given my reasons for believing that the fracture took 
place before the deposition of the Barakar rocks. 

The next example of this system runs between Putkee and Antekhita, 
forming the boundary at the extreme north-west prolongation of the 
field. The fractured junctions between the Barakars and gneiss in the 
Aurunga section clearly indicate the faulted character o£ this boundary. 
The strike is 20° north of east to 20° south of west. 

The last representative of this system which has yet been proved forms 
the north-west boundary of the Hutar field, and is_, it is believed, continuous 
with the line of fracture marked by fault rock, wherefrom the Tatapani 
hot springs take their rise. Where it forms the boundary of the field its 
faulted character is clearly indicated by the fractured junctions and cut- 
off patches in a series of cross-sections which are yielded by streams ; 
its strike falls from 25° to 21°, north of east and south of west. There 
is nothing to indicate its relative age. 

3. Worth of west to south of east system. 

The first example of this system is the already described fault which 
bisects the Aurunga field. Its strike between Obur and Rukhant is 
from 47^ north of west to 47'' south of east. At Obur it is deflected 
about 17°, so that the direction between Jarum and Obur is from 30° 
north of west to 30° east of south. 

The next of this system is the one which runs from Putkee to 
Latiahar ; at several points it touches the bends of the Aurunga tangen- 
tially, and its faulted character is clearly apparent ; its strike is 27° to 
22°, north of west and south of east. 

The last fault of this system is the well-marked one which forms 
the terminal western boundary of the Hutar field. Its strike is unusual, 
being 60° north of west and south of east. Properly speaking, perhaps, 
it ought to be classed by itself. From what I have seen of the meta- 
morphic rocks I fully anticipate that their detailed examination will 
result in the discovery of other lines of fracture, having strikes referable 
to the above systems. 
( 54 ) 



Stratigraphieal Details. 
What has been stated on previous pages, when read with the aid of 
the accompanying map, will probably be found sufficient to convey all 
necessary information as to the general form and surroundings of this 
field. There remain to be described, therefore, only the stratigraphieal 
details of the several rock groups which are represented. 

The area of the field inclusive of outliers is exactly 97 square miles, 
the different rock goups being exposed in the following proportions :— 

Mahadeva series 14"8 square miles. 

Panchet group 10'3 „ „ 

Eaiilganj „ 8-8 „ „ 

Barakar ,, 68*5 „ „ 

Talchir „ 4'5 „ ., 


Section I. — Talchir Group. 

As has already been stated, rocks belonging to the Talchir group are 
but sparingly represented in the Aurunga field. Except in the few in- 
stances about to be noted, the Barakars, where the boundary is natural, 
rest directly on the gneiss, having completely overlapped the Talchirs, 
which, it is to be presumed however, occupy the central and deeper part 
of the basin. 

Commencing examination on the east, the first deposit of rocks of 
Talchirs south of Balu- t^^s age IS exposed south of the village of Balu- 
^^SS^^' naggar near the road-crossing of the Sukri. The 

section discloses a false-bedded Talchir conglomerate with some red 
shales, the latter being perhaps of somewhat doubtful affinities. They 
are immediately covered on the southern bank by typical Barakar grits 
and pebble beds with white and pinkish clays. 

( o5 ) 

56 ball: GEOLoaY of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

To tlie west of this there are two short exposures of Talchir shales 
in the bed of the river, which are interrupted by gneiss and partly over- 
lapped by Barakars, which, farther on, completely conceal them. To the 
east of the road-crossing- after an interval in the bed of the Sukri where 
no rocks are exposed, and at the junction of the three streams which 
combine to form that river, Talchir shales are again seen. In the 
first of these streams a section of about 200 yards long is exposed. 
The beds consist chiefly of yellow sandstones, but there are also some 
shales ; they rest naturally on gneiss, and are covered up in the 
next three reaches of the southernmost tributary by sandstones, which 
gradually assume a Barakar-like aspect. Gneiss then occupies the 
section for about a quarter of a mile, after which the section dis- 
closes a narrow strip of Talchirs, consisting of liver-coloured shales 
and grey sandstones, with which a boulder bed of limited extent is 

The total area of the Talchirs, at this north-east corner of the field 
which are not concealed by overlapping Barakars probably does not 
exceed a quarter of a square mile. The precise extent is uncertain, owing 
to the boundary south of Balu-naggar being concealed by alluvium. 
The maximum thickness of Talchirs exposed in the above sections no- 
where amounts to 100 feet. 

Proceeding round the eastern edge of the field, in the Bagh Digwa 
Eed clays at base of section north of Rampur, and at several of the 
Barakars. points of junction in the Ghugree, north-west 

of Bhurla, there are red clays which may represent Talchirs ; but they 
seem to be very intimately connected with the Barakar grits and sand- 
stones,and are practically inseparable from them. On the south bound- 
ary narrow marginal strips of Talchir shales and boulder bed occur 
at the base of the sections to east and west of Mungur. Similar, but 
less distinctly seen, exposures occur in the bed of the Aurunga between 
Hurkha and Bishunpur. 

On the northern boundary of the field between Latiahar and Nowa- 
dih, outside the east to west fault, there is a triangular-shaped area 
( 56 ) 


occupied by beds of somewhat anomalous character, and the deter- 
Abnormal Talchirs at mination of the age of which was a source of con- 
Latiahar. siderable uncertainty to me. 

The litholog-ical characters are so unusual and peculiar that, until 
I met with some rather similar rocks among the Talchir beds in the 
narrow strip at the extreme end of the field, near Hosir, I was unable 
to bring myself to believe that they should be relegated to that age. 

At the base of the section near Nowadih there are yellow sandstones 
exposed in the bed of the stream ; these are overlaid by greyish yellow 
shales with some gritty beds, including one which is calcareous and con- 
tains small fragments of metamorphic rocks. With these shales there 
are thin papery carbonaceous layers, which confer a most un-Talchir 
aspect to the beds. The shales differ from ordinary Talchirs in being 
more fibrous and in seldom shewing the characteristic concentric struc- 
ture and splintery fracture. In some respects they resemble more nearly 
certain beds which, in this area, have been referred to the Ranigaiij 
group, but the stratigraphical relations are such as to render it impossi- 
ble to refer them to any group younger tiian Barakars. 

They rest directly on the gneiss and dip steadily southwards towards 
the fault, the Barakars having the same general direction, modified by 
anticlinal rolls on the other side of it. 

The occurrence of distinctly visible carbonaceous matter in rocks of 
Talchir age is not unprecedented, as I have already recorded a case which 
I met with in Sirguja, where there was actually a thin layer of coal of 
very inferior quality. 

On the whole, it seems impossible to classify these rocks otherwise 
than as being Talchirs. The existence or non-existence of a fault does 
not materially affect the case, as from the dips the beds on the north 
must be older than those on the south. 

South of the indicated line of fault which probably had a very slight 
downthrow here, the rocks, up to the foot of the hills, are much obscured 
by alluvium. This is particularly unfortunate, as the neighbourhood of 

( 57 ) 


Latiahar is one where the relations of the beds is very intricate, and where 

a few really clear and unmistakable sections would be of great importance. 

The last area of Talchirs in direct contact with the field forms a 

marginal strip of varying width, which extends 

along the south-west border of the field for about 

9 miles from Godinan to beyond Hosir. Within its limits at Ledopali 

and Bindee there are two inliers of metamorphic rocks whose boundaries, 

though not very clearly exposed, owing to superficial deposits, cannot be 

very widely different from those indicated on the map. North of Bindee 

the Barakars appear to rest directly on gneiss without the intervention 

of any Talchirs. The Talchirs throughout this strip consist principally 

of shales and boulder beds, sandstones being less common. 

At Hosir, as already mentioned, occur the sandy and fibrous shales 

already alluded to as being similar to the anoma- 
Talchirs at Hosir. , , . t . • i tt j.i xi 

lous rocks at Latiahar, Here they occur on the 

same line of strike and in intimate association with distinct Talehir 

shales and boulder bed, leaving no doubt as to the horizon to which 

they should be referred. There is a good deal of disturbance all along 

the line of junction with the gneiss, the shales often dipping at angles of 

from 60° to 90°. I failed to detect any faulted contacts, and it 

seems most probable that this disturbance should be referred to the 

effects of the lateral crush which would naturally follow from the faulting 

of the Barakars on the north boundary of the field. 

At the same time it is possible that there may be a continuation of 
the northern of the Latiahar pair of east and west faults in the gneiss 
of this neighbourhood. 

Outliers. — Detached from the main area of the field, but in its 
immediate vicinity, there are two outHers, in which representatives of the 
Talehir group occur. 

The first of these consists of a narrow belt in broken continuation 
with the abovementioned marginal strip which is 
^^ ' prolonged beyond the Barakars at Hosir. This 

( 58 ) 


belt strikes ia a south-westerly direction from Oopag for about 2J 
miles towards Huratu. It is well exposed in section in the Jelma river, 
and consists of shales, sandstones and a strongly-developed boulder bed. 

These in places are a good deal disturbed and crushed, but I saw no 

clear indication of any faulting having taken place. 

The second outlier is situated to the north of Nowagarh. The 

^ ,,. J. 1, £ character of the Talchirs here is best seen in a 

Outlier north or 

Nowagarh. section which is exposed for about half a mile in 

the bed of the Sotapani between the villages of Kotilwa and Heslah. 
The rocks chiefly consist of soft yellow sandstones, which rather closely 
resemble those of Raniganj-age, and yellow shales. At Topo, and thence 
eastwards, they are covered up by the pebble conglomerates, and are 
overlapped by them, as they do not reappear along any other part of the 
boundaries of this outlier. 

Section 2. — Barakar Group. 

The rocks of Barakar age within the limits of the Aurunga field 
occupy several practically detached areas (the intervals being covered 
by younger rocks) which can be most conveniently described separately. 
These areas, therefore, will be taken up as they occur from east to west, 
or as they would be encountered by any one entering the valley of the 
Aurunga from Balumath. The shape of the first of these, which lies 
on the north-east, and from which a prolongation margins the field 
on the north, is too irregular to be intelligibly described, but with the 
accompanying map before the reader any such explanation is scarcely 

The first section to be described is that which is exposed in the 

e ,. . ,, northern branch of the Sukri south of Balu- 

Section in northern 

branch of Sukri. naggar. Already the character of the beds seen 

at the road-crossing has been alluded to in describing the Talchirs. The 
conglomerates and white and pinkish clays extend thence eastward into 
the highlands where, in the neighbourhood of the already-described 
ridge of fault rock at Korean, they are locally much disturbed, dipping 

( 59 ) 


at an angle of 40° to north. Farther east they rest on the limestones and 
other crystalline rocks. To the west of the road crossings at a distance 
of rather more than half a mile, the section in the Sukri discloses 
a lenticular mass of decomposed coaly shale resting on about four feet 
of blue, pink and yellow shales, and covered by twenty feet of fine white 

At thickest, the coaly shale is 2 feet 4 inches, with a rolling dip. 

Beyond this the section alternately discloses 
Section east of Mooroop. . , . , . 

Barakars, Talchirs and gneiss up to the point where 

the stream crosses the boundary, and does not re-enter the coal measures 

again until a point east of Mooroop is reached, where there is a section 

as follows :— 


Grits with quartz pebbles, dip 15° S. W. 

Inside the boundary, on the east side of the river, gneiss is exposed for 30 
yards or so, and the contact is clearly natural. 

Overlying these bottom beds there are white and grey clays, dip 25° south. 


Sandstones, dip 30" S. 

The map is here wanting in detail, as it does not represent a very 
decided loop bend in the river, in which flaggy, somewhat ferruginous, 
shales are exposed. 

These beds possibly represent the Kolherwan ironstone zone to be 

^ , , , presently described. Although the imperfection of 

Coaly zone cut out r j ^ r 

by fault. the section prevents its being traced, it is most 

probable that close by here runs the continuation of an east to west fault, 
which is well seen in the west. And it is possible that to the cutting out 
by this fault may be attributed the absence in this section of the Raj bar 
coaly zone, which is described below. 

The flaggy beds are followed by sandstones with their carbonaceous 

shales. These, east of Mungra, are covered by 
Ranigani beds. • -, ^^ i i i • i ,1 

soft fine-grained yellow sandstones, which must be 
referred to the Raniganj group. 
( 60 ) 


In the neighbourhood of Kolherwan occurs the above-alluded to zone 

r . X T^ iv of shales and ironstones. The latter aredissemi- 

Ironstones at Kolher- 
wan. nated rather sparsely in beds 2 to 3 inches thick, 

throug-h perhaps 30 feet of grey sandy shales which rest on blue 
concretionary shales. Such is the section seen south of fatratu beyond 
which the extension is obscure, possibly the ironstones die out. At 
Lejang there are ripple-marked sandstones forming a small hill, dip 20" 
S.-W. Throughout a considerable portion of this neighbourhood, con- 
cretionary nodules of iron, weathered out from the sandstones and grits, 
strew the surface in great abundance. 

In the southern branch of the Sukri* at Pukraf, the junction of the 
Internal overlap of I^aniganjes with the Barakars appears to indicate 
Raniganjes. internal overlap in the former. In the north ta 

south reach near the village the yellow sandstones dip steadily south at 
angles rising to 40°. Suddenly then at the village there is a roll which 
brings up Barakar sandstones with carbonaceous shale, the" base of which 
is slightly coaly. There is no sign of any faulting, and the peculiarity 
of the section seems to be due to the topmost beds of the yellow 
(Raniganj) sandstone overlapping all below, thus resting directly on the 
Barakars. About half a mile east of Pukrar the section discloses some 

light-coloured sandstones and shaly beds, which are, 
Baniganj outlier. 

I think, referable to the Raniganj group ', they rest 

detached in a distinct synclinal of Barakar beds, and therefore constitute 

an out-lier. Proceeding eastwards, grits and sandstones with dip of 5° are 

underlaid by shales with poorly developed ironstone, which may possibly 

represent the Kolherwan zone. In the next reach south-west of Lejang, 

we meet the following section :— 

Section, descending!, dip W. and W.-S.-W. 

Grit 4' 6" 

Grey shales 4' (/' 

8' 6" 

» Whether there exist distinctive names for all the different streams which combine 
to form the Sukri I cannot say ; it is most probable that there are, but the guides with me 
certainly applied the name Sukri both to the one south of Balu-naggar and that under 

( 63 ) 



Brought forward 

Flaky sandstone .... 

Grey shales 

Sandstone ..... 

Grey shales .... 


Blue and black shale ") 

coaly towards base ) 

Sandy shale 

Blue shale 


Grey shales . . •. 

Seam — 

Coal, decomposed 


Parting .... 


Coal, decomposed 

. r 0" 

Grey and blue shales 

. 3' 0" 



Carbonaceous shale, coaly 


Grey shale .... 


Carbonaceous shale, coal . 


Blue shale .... 




Carbonaceous shale, coaly 

. 1' 

. 8' 


. 1' 


. 1' 



. 3' 



. 4' 



. 2' 



. 1' 


7' ir 

32' 1" 

Below this there are four bands of carbonaceous shale ranging- from 
one to two feet in thickness. The lowest includes about one foot of 
poor flaky coal. Another lower seam includes about six inches of coal. In 
the next reach the beds locally bend round by south to east, and some of 
the carbonaceous shales are repeated. This seam, or, to speak more cor- 
rectly, this zone of seams and carbonaceous shales, is again exposed north 
of Rajbar, whence it follows much the same course as the bed of the 
stream. By intei-polation it has here so increased in dimensions that it 
is nearly a mile wide south of Kolherwan. 
( 63 ) 


The following' is the sectiou of the heds measured in the reaches east of 

Raj bar : — 

Section, descending, dip rolling S. W. 7° 

South bank of river. 

Surface soil. 
Synclinal — 

1. Thin sandstone and sandy shale . . . . & Ql' 

2. Carbonaceous shale, coaly 2" 

3. Same as No. 1 3' 8" 

4. Blue and grey concretionary shale 
6. Coal 

6. Same as 4, but more carbonaceous in places 

7. Sandy bed, lenticular, maximum 

8. Same as 4 . . , 

9. Sandy concretionary bed with ironstone 

10. Seam— 
Consisting of carbonaceous shales, 72 feet at 10° 

11. Sandstones with conci'etionary ironstones . 

12. Seam — 

('a^, Carbonaceous shales, much concealed, 23 feet at 10° 4' 0" 

(bj. Coal, good 4" 

(ej. Similar to (a) with sandstone interpolations, 26 

at 10° 4 6" 

(dj. Coal, lower part very ferruginous . . . 1' (/' 
North bank of river — 

13. Sandstone, with ironstone, about . . . . 5' 0'' 

14. Seam— 

Carbonaceous shales with occasional layers of good 
coal up to 4", and of inferior flaky coal up to 1' — 
195' at 25° 83' 0" 

15. Sandstones with shales alternating, dip. 25*^ falling to 
















15°, say 58' at 20° 

. 19' 9" 

16. Seam — 

Coaly shale . . . . 

. 1' 9" 

Flaky coal, decomposed. 


Sandy and concretionarj' shale 

. 2' 4'' 

Coal, poor 

. 1' r 

Concretionaiy shale 

. r 


. 2" 


164' 6" 

{ 63 ) 


Brought forward . . . . 164' 6" 

17. Shales 7' 

18. Sandstone, say 12' 

* 19. Seam, badly seen — 

Upper half apparently fair coal, 50' at 15° . . 12' 10'' 
South bank — 

20. Sandistones ... ^ .... 3' 

>» 21. Seam similar to No. 14, 80' at 15° W.-S.-W . . 21' 2" 

22. Sandstone ' ........ 1' 

23. Seam, also similar to No. 14, 70' at 10° . . .12' 2" 

24. Sandstone 8" 

25. Carbonaceous shales passing into blue shales . . 6' 

26. Sandstones and carbonaceous shales about 40' at 10" . 6' 10° 

* 27. Seam- 

Cohtairls thin bands of coal alternating with shale 
140' at 10° 24' 6" 

271' 8" 

Strong interpolations of sandstones modify the character of this last 

p, , ,. , , seam in its fm-ther extension towards Burwa toleh. 

Coal zone dies out to 

(south-east. The contrasts afforded by it as seen in section on 

either side of the river are very striking* Along the same line of strike 
to south-east I could find no further trace of these carbonaceous beds, 
and it seems probable that they die out. 

Before reviewing the above, it will be well to give an account of the 
sections which flank this zone. North of Rajbar in the Bunora stream 
there is a broken section of some of the above as well also as of some 
lower measures. Being seen dry, instead of sodden with water, as is the 
case in the Sukri section, it is easier to form an opinion as to the quality 
of the seams. Coal is only seen in rare bands, the thickest of which 
does not exceed one foot. 

In the Seruk stream which runs south of Rajbar and which joins the 
Sukri beyond Jorean, the section exposes at the base, resting on gneiss, 
sandstones and white shales, with a dip of 20 ^^ to west. These are 

* A sample from this seam contained only 22'3 per cent, of fixed carbon, with 50'3 of 


*" Vide Table of Assays. 

( 64 ) . 


overlaid by grits, sandstones, and blue and grey shales. At Hureyakur, 
ironstones, of which we shall have more to say presently, are seen in the 
banks of the stream. Soon, by interpolation, the highest beds of the 
carbonaceous zone make their appearance, and steadily increase in dimen- 
sions, and vary in character as we proceed down stream in a north-west 

direction. There are, at least, three distinct seams 

Seams at Jomean. 

near Jomean with low rolling dip to south-west* 
To the north-west of Jornean again there are two more, the position of 
which with regard to the ironstones about to be described is uncertain, 
owing to the complications of the stratigraphical sequence arising from 
extensive interpolation. 

Overlying the carbonaceous zone is a band of shales, with ironstones, 
which form a very marked north-west to south-east 
R^bSf °'''' '°''*^ ""* ridge for a distance of nearly two miles. From a 
section afforded by a stream south of the ridge, I am 
inclined to believe that, as a maximum, the ironstones are about 10 per cent, 
of the whole thickness of this zone. The actual thickness of the zone 
is somewhat doubtful, but as the average dip of the shales is about 5®, 
200 feet is, I think, a fair estimate, so that where thickest there is prob- 
ably a total of 20 feet of ironstones. At first sight, owing to the fact that 
the conservation of the ridge has been due to the presence of the iron- 
stones, and that fragments of ironstone strew the surface in great abund- 
ance, it might be thought that the above was an under estimate, but 
I believe it to be a most liberal one. Now, as to lateral extension : to- 
wards the south-east the ironstones, like the carbonaceous shales, appear to 
die out rapidly. To the north-west at Jornean the ironstones are locally 
elevated into an anticlinal; their further prolongation is doubtful; 
a sharp turn to north of Jornean would bring them into connec- 
tion with the zone at Kolherwan, but the occurrence of the seams 
north-west of Jornean renders it probable that these are continued 
and die out in the direction of Timkee, and that therefore the two 
zones are really distinct, being interpolated at slightly different 

( 65 ) 


Altogether it may be confidently asserted that there is a plentiful 
supply of ore in this neighbourhood, which, as the 
of?hettsSne.''"*''^ ^^P ^^ ^nly 5' and less, might be easily worked. 
The quality of the ore too is satisfactory, a fair 
sample having yielded on assay 49'2 per cent, of metallic iron. So simi- 
lar in appearance are these ironstone shales to the group of that name 
in the eastern fields, that it might easily be supposed that they are of the 
same age. The occurrence of Barakar sandstones, &c., however, higher 
in the sequence, indicates their true position beyond a doubt. Somewhat 
similar ironstones occur with the Barakars on the east of the Karanpura 
field. The true Ironstone Shale group I believe to 
abs^nr*"""^ Shale group ^^ ^j^^^y unrepresented in the Aurunga field and 
its outliers. In one of the latter, as will be shewn, 
these Barakar ironstones are likewise strongly developed, forming a very 
important deposit. 

We have then in tolerably close proximity to Rajbar coal, ironstone, 
and limestone {vide map). The quality of the two latter has already 
been described. Regarding the coal it will be necessary here to say 
a few words in anticipation of the fuller account which will be found in 
the chapter on the economic resources. The extent of the carbonaceous 
deposits here exposed could scarcely fail to attract the notice of a passer- 
by, and a vast supply of coal might be thought to exist ; close examina- 
tion soon reveals the poverty of the seams, and the 
^^^Coal of inferior qua- ^gg^^g ^j^-^^ j ^^^^ j^^^^ ^f ^^^^ ^f ^.y^g best look- 
ing bands of coal have fully confirmed the unfavor- 
able opinion which I formed in the field. At the same time I do 
not wholly despair of the existence of tolerable coal in workable 
thicknesses ; but that coal suitable for iron-smelting will ever be 
found in this neighbourhood is, I regret to say, scarcely to be hoped for. 
A pit near the river bank east of Eajbar might easily be sunk to test 
these seams thoroughly. It is to be hoped that 
such may be done before any final conclusion is 
arrived at. 

( 66 ) 


Between Goortoor and Dunria, along the eastern boundary^ the rocks 

jf , , are chiefly hill-forminff conglomerates, with angular 

Kocks on eastern •' o t> > o 

margin of field. quartz, a small inlier of gneiss being surrounded 

by these beds. Ironstone concretions, weathered out on the surface, are 
here likewise very abundant. At Dunria the position of the bound- 
ary is somewhat doubtful. Between Dunria and Renchee I saw no 
sign of the carbonaceous zone. South of Renchee at the road-crossing, 
we have on the east Barakar grits, and on the west soft sandy beds of 
uncertain character, probably Raniganjes ; beyond them come in grits 
which probably belong to the Panchets, but the position of the Rani- 
ganj-Panchet boundary is here somewhat uncertain. 

In the neighbourhood of Rampur a series of streams afford a 

number of sections which throw much light on 
Sections at Eampur. 

the geology. South of the village there is a well- 
marked faulted junction between the gneiss and some grits and shales 
which dip north at 20.° In the bed of a tank the beds appear to be nearly 
vertical. The fault strikes nearly due west from hence towards the 
Jugguldugga hills, and with the aid of a north-west to south-east fault, 
has cut a wedge-shaped area out of the field. The sole evidence of the 
former existence of the Barakars is afforded by a small outlying patch at 
Reharee which rests on the upheaved gneiss. 

In the Bagh-digwa stream north of Rampur the bottom bed is a 
red arkose, upon which rest sandstone, grits and shales with dip of 35° 
to south-west. Following this stream westwards Barakar, sandstones are 
met with dipping in various directions. As the village of Hoochloo is 
reached, a tolerably continuous section is exposed, carbonaceous shales with 
portions slightly coaly dip south-west at 40°. Above these are sandstones 
and a few thin bands of ironstones, the quality of which is probably equal 
to that of the Raj bar ironstones. These are soon covered by rocks which 
must be referred to the Raniganj group, and are thus separated from the 
area of Barakars exposed to the south-east of Jugguldugga. We pass there- 
fore again to the northern boundary, to describe the sections near Toobed, 
before entering upon an account of the Barakars on the south of the field 

( 67 ) 


Section at Toobed, 

.North-west of Toobed, in the bed of the Sukri, there are the already 
mentioned sandy gneisses striking east-north- 
east, and 35° north of east ; these have been cut 
into a deep gorge by the river, close to the mouth of which they are 
overlaid by red and white shales, after which follow a number of seams 
with dip to east. If not cut off by the east and west fault as is represented, 
we should here have evidence of great unconformity between these beds 
and the Eaniganjes, but the fault, as will presently be shown, is very 
distinctly marked. The following descending section was measured 
in the reaches of the Sukri to east and north of the village of 
Toobed ; though extending from the sandstones of Raniganj age to the 
gneiss, it is of no use as an absolute measure of thickness, as some 
beds of the Barakar sequence have certainly been cut out by the 
flTult :— 

North bank' 

Descending Section in the Su/cri at Toobed. 

/Sandstones (Eaniganj). 
Interval, wherein the fault probably occurs. 
Blue and carbonaceous shales with sandstones, perhaps 
150' in all, but rolling and, where repeated, dip- 
E.-S.-E. 10°. 
Section — 

1. Grit sandstone 4' 

2. Blue shales and sandstones, very variable . . 10' 

3. Coal 3" 

( 4. Same as No. 2, about 15' 

5. /S'eawi,shalycoal,dipS.-E.10°<15° . . . .10' 

6. Sandstones and shales . . . . . . 8' 6" 

7. Seam, 850' at say 5° = . . . . . .77' 0" 

This seam, nearly flat in places, certainly contains 

some fair coal, but owing to its sodden decom- 
posed condition it is impossible to give details. 
Dip changes from ,S.-E. to E.-S.-E. I 

r 8. Shales 4' 

North bank \ 9. Seam, covered, about 100' at 5° = . . . .8' 8" 
C 10. Yellow and white shales . , . . ' . .5' 

( 68 ) 

South bank, 
mouth of 

2iid stream. 


'11. Seam, 8' vertical, 110' at 15° E. = 36' 6" 

contains about |th of burnable coal, separated in 
Nortb of / bands, none of wbich exceeds one foot in thickness. 

12. Blue and white shales, 150' at 8° = . . . 20' 10^' 

13. Eed and yellow shales resting naturally on . .4' 
Gneiss, vertical, strike 35° north of east. 

Samples of the coal in Nos. 5 and 11 have yielded on assay but 
poor results, the percentages of ash being respectively 34*6 and 25'6.* 

In the streams to the north of this section the beds are somewhat 
better seen^ and the poor shaly character of the seams is more clearly 
apparent than where they are sodden with water in the bed of the Sukri. 
Here too I am forced to state my belief that there is not much prospect of 
a really good quality of coal being found in sufficient quantity to be mined 
with profit. Proceeding westwards along the bed of the Sukri, the section 
passes abruptly from the above-mentioned gneissose 

of ToS!^ '''*''''' ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^*o ^ ^^^I'O'^ 20^^ ^f intensely tilted ripple- 
marked sandstones with carbonaceous shales, which 
are seen tobe in vertical faulted contact with the gneiss in several junctions 
exhibited in the small tributary streams. In the Sukri itself the ripple- 
marked beds dip 55° to south and south-south-west, and are covered up im- 
mediately by yellow sandstones and some blue, slightly carbonaceous shales 
belonging to the Eaniganj group. Just beyond the village of Bandudag the 
Barakars are completely cut out by a fault, but immediately reappear with 
some Raniganjes in a cut-off patch, to the north of the fault, — vide map. 
The section of this cut-off patch west of Bandudag is particularly 
well seen in the Sukri, and exhibits a peculiarly interesting piece of 
geological structure. Underlying the yellow Raniganj beds, there is in 
the first section a very narrow belt of nearly vertical grits with red clays 
in natural contact with the gneiss. These are, 
of BaSdudr ^''^^ ^^^^'^ therefore, the bottom beds and represent, in this 
particular spot, the whole thickness of Barakur 

Vide Table of Assays in chapter VII. 

( 69 ) 


oedsj which, it is needless to observe, have very much thinned out. Pass- 
ing the loop bend occupied by metamorphic rocks, the next section of the 
Barakars is in the vicinity of the mouth of the Katari, where there is a 
seam, not very well seen, which is overlaid by sandstones and grits, and 
these, within a short distance, by the yellow sandstones of the Raniganj 
group. Under this seam are some red beds which, in one spot on the 
south bank, rest on decomposed gneiss, and for a short distance the junc- 
tions with the gneiss are very irregular, the sections of the bottom beds 
on either bank of the river exhibiting striking contrasts. 

In the next reach, from south to north, the following section is met 
with : — 

Section in loop lend of Sukri vwrth of ManjTiar, dip to south, and 10^ east 
of south [descending). 

(1). White stales and grit with one 4-inch band of coal 

about centre 10' 0" 

(2). Seam — 

Does not appear to contain any good coal, but is much 

decomposed, dip 30° 15' 0" 

(3). Blue and white shales, 70' at 30° = . . . . 35' 0" 

(4). Seam — 

Consists of alternating thicknesses of concretionary- 
shale and papery coal of from 2" to 8", the latter 
about one-third of the whole thickness, 18" at 

30== 9' 0" 

(5). Mottled and concretionary shales, portions passing 

into grit, 17' at 30° = 8' 6" 

(6). Blue (carbonaceous), white and mottled pink, concre- 
tionary shales, 83' at 17° = . 
(7). Similar beds, more carbonaceous in places, 100' at 20°= 34' 
There is a transverse slip in the above beds which does 
not, however, affect the above measurement. 
(8). Mottled grits passing into shales, 32' at 25° =; . 

(9). Carbonaceous shale, seen 

(10). Interval 120' at 25° = 

( 70 ) 












(11). Same as 8 10 (/' 

(12). Eed (liver-coloured) and greenish shales, 100' at 25° . 88' 7" 
Gneiss . • 

300' 6" 

If 50 feet are added to the above, the total, 350 feet, will give as near 
as possible the maximum thickness of Barakars cut off north of the fault. 
The minimum thickness probably does not exceed 20 feet. 

It may be that these liver-coloured clays, No. 13 of section, represent 
Talchirs. Though occurring at most of the natural junctions, they are 
nowhere so well developed as in this section. In some cases they 
occur not actually as bottom beds, but are underlaid by sandstones or 
grits, which seem properly referable to Barakars. Though it is true 
they are somewhat an unusual form of rock to meet with in Barakars, 
they differ from Talchirs both in texture and mode of fracture. 

The last section of these rocks which is seen in the Sukri, though 
short, is a very interesting one, as it affords 
of faS?^* '''*'''''*''''' evidence of the intersection of the two faults at 
the precise spot where from their directions further 
east it was concluded that they would meet. In the angle included 
between them, tlie Raniganjes are let down in a V-shaped trough, a seam 
of carbonaceous shale, which is clearly seen on the south side of the V, is 
cut out by the east to west fault on the north, and the edges of the 
beds brought into contact with those of the cut-ofB Barakars. 

The next areas of Barakars to be described are those which occur 
to the south-east of Pochra, and are included in 
Pochra. " ^ ^^ angle formed between the northern of the pair 

of Latiahar east- west faults, and the great north- 
west south-east fault. The rocks mainly consist of coarse grits with a 
large amount of concretionary ironstones. In the raviney ground south 
of Subano, the streams shew indications of the existence of a patch of 
Raniganjes cut off by the fault. As near as possible the limits of this 
patch are given on the map, but the relations are not very clear. The 

( 71 ) 


faulted junction is clearly seen in the streams south-west of Subano, 
where the coarse grits are in contact with the greenish Panchet sand- 
stones. The general form and position of these areas will be best 
understood by reference to the map. 

Resuming description close to where the Barakars were described as 

being covered up by the higher groups near 
Section in Ghugri. . . . & -t^ 

Hochloo, in the region lying to the south-east of 

Jugguldugga, the first section to be mentioned is that afforded by the 

Ghugri. In this river between Rukhunt and a point south of Sukri 

the rocks are, for the most part, concealed by alluvium, and the precise 

position of the boundaries is somewhat uncertain in consequence, but 

they cannot be very different from what is represented. South of 

Kurmahi the effects of the great north-west south-east fault are marked 

by the steep and abrupt tilting away from it of some sandstones, grits 

and shales which dip at angles of 50° to 70° to south and south-south 


A little to the west of north of Bhurla the river has cut a deep 
gorge through massive sandstones and grits which 
of Bhurla™^ ° ^^^^ ^^P ^^ north-cast and north-north-east at angles 
of from 20° to 30°. A little farther on, north of 
Nowatolah, the boundary strikes a loop bend tangentially, and a section 
is disclosed shewing a massive pebbly grit resting with original contact 
on the face of thin purple sandy gneiss. After this the river runs with 
the line of junction of contorted gneiss with south-east dip, exposed 
on the south bank, and sandstones dipping away on the north. 

Beyoiid this about seven bands of carbonaceous shales appear by 
interpolation. They do not include any coal. Several very pretty 
natural junctions which have been affected by lateral thrust are then 
met with at intervals, but the detailed description of which would occupy 
too much space here. It must suffice to allude to one only. This is 
where the boundary crosses the Auruuga river north of its junction 
with the Ghugri. 

{ rz ■) 




45' 3" 

The difficulty about this section is to ascertain sharply the line of 

junction between the decomposed metamorphic beds 
Section in Aurunga, 

and the sandstones, &c., whicn are largely formed 
of gneissose materials. On the right of the section a massive pebble 
bed rests on the edges of the disturbed and decomposed gneiss, while on 
the left red clays and white and ferruginous grits with much false 
bedding occur next the gneiss. 

In the next reach we meet with the following well exposed sec- 
tion, the dip throughout being q. p. north : — 

Ascending section in Aurunga River, south-east of Juggtilduqga. 

(Gneiss partly epidotic and decomposed ; might be mistaken for Talchirs.) 

1. Coarse grits, with shales, strike east-west q. p. . 100' 

2. Decomposed carhonaceous shale (details not seen), 

50' at 65°= 

3. Shales and thin sandstones, with some carhonaceous 

shale, much covered, 100' at 65° > 35°= . 

4. Sandstones and grits, 120' at 35° < 55°= 
5- Decomposed carbonaceous shale, say 

6. Grits, 60' at 45°= 

7. Interval, 40' at 50°= ..... 

8. Decomposed carbonaceous shale, 33' at 55°= . 

9. Thin false-bedded sandstones, with blue shales, 50' 

at 57°= . . . . 

10. Coarse grits, with interbedded shaly sandstones, 

25' at 60°= 

11. Sandstones, 44' at 60° > 50°= 

12. Same as No. 9, 71' at 60°= .... 

13. Decomposed carbonaceous shale, 23' at 60°:= . 

14. Interval, bed of river, 120' at 60° > 50°= . 

15. Sandstone and grit 

16. Seam, iacluding 1' 6" of coal 

17. Shales and sandstones, 100 at 60° = 

18. Thin sandstone with carbonaceous and blue shales 

alternating, 150' at 50"= ... 

19. Seam, includes thin layers of coal 

20. Similar to 18, but less carbonaceous, 200' at 50°= 














39' 1" 

























74 ball: geology op aurunga and hutab, coal fields. 

21. Interval in bed of river, 100' at 50° > 35° = . 68' 0" 

22. White sandstones and grits, with, blue shales, say . 50' 0" 

Total .... 1,195' 10" 

The beds included in No. 23 might pass for RaniganjeSj but in the 
Maximum thickness of ^ig^ giound north of river there are grits and 
Barakars. ironstones, higher in the sequence, which are, I 

think, clearly of Barakar age. If we add for these higher beds 300 feet, 
a most liberal allowance, the total thickness would amount to something 
under 1,500 feet. 

In succeeding sections of the narrowing Barakar zone there is clearly 

no room for the full thickness above given, and here there is no trace of 

the overlying yellow beds, which may overlap in the sections measured 

below ; but this would not account for the fact that between these beds 

(No. 22), where last seen, and the gneiss, there is not room for more than 200 

^ . , . ^, feet as against about 1,000. This indicates great 

Thickness in other sec- ° ° 

tions. thinning out and internal overlap ; in fact, in the 

succeeding sections the carbonaceous zone is scarcely represented. But 
the sections below measure 256' 7", rising to 559' 4" as we proceed 
eastward, and shew a decided tendency in the beds to recover this lost 
thickness. The thinning out of the carbonaceous zone here resembles 
its disappearance south-east of Kajbar. 

Some of the decomposed seams may contain coal, but their appear- 
ance is not promising, and as their dip averages 60°, their economic 
importance is slight. 

The sections above alluded to are as follows : — 

Section, in west reach of loop, south-west of Juggiddugga. 

(Gneiss seen on south bank of river.) 

1. Bed of river, rocks concealed, say 

2. Sandstones, shales and grits, 125' at 70°= 

3. Massive grit, dip 65° 

4. Seam, decomposed ...... 

5. Grits and shales, 60' at 65° > 50°= . 

Total .... 256' 7" 
( 74 ) 













Resting on the above are soft white sandstones with shales 
and gi-it. These seem to belong to the upper group 
(Eaniganj). Their junction is disturbed by a roll. 
Thickness, say 30' 

Section in reach north of Jaloom (Zalim.J. 

Gneiss, dip 70" 

r 1. Massive grit, 1 foot arkose at the base, 90' at 45° 

1 N.-N..W.=: 

52 2. Grits, with blue shales, 80' at 45"= . 

-I { 3. Same, 100' at 65°= 

fq I 4. Grits, with sandstones and fine shales, 250' at 55° =: 

I 5. Concealed, 300' at 30°= 

L 6. Grits . : 

r 7. 









Yellow sandstones, false-bedded, 280' at 20°= . 
Yellow sandstones, with lenticular calcareous sand' 

stones and carbonaceous shale at base, 300' at 30' 
Sandstones and carbonaceous shales 


Same as 9 

Concealed, 350' at 1 5°= 

Fault (?) 

Grit 10° N.-N.-W 


63' 7" 

66' 6" 

90' 7" 

204' 8" 

150' 0" 

20' 0" 

















Section in Bagh Bigwa River, east of Juggulclugga Hills. 
Eed and green clays and white sandstones ; Dip, 25° south-west (Panchets). 
Yellow massive grit sandstone; Dip, 20° south (Mahadevas). 
fault, no junction seen. 

BaraJcars {descending), 

1. Thin sandstones and blue shales, N.-N.-W. 15° . . 35' CI' 

2, Seam — 

(a). Blue shales 1' 0" 

(h). Papery coal ..... 3" 

( 75 ) 

76 ball: geology of aueunga and hutau coal fields. 

(c). Elue shales 

(d). Papery coal 

(e). Blue shales 
(/). Coal . . . 
(g). Carbonaceous shale 
(A). Blue shale, with coaly layers 

3. Sandstone, ferruginous at top 

4. Blue shales and white sandstones, base concealed, dip] 

N.-W., 15°, say 7' C/' 















Total . . . .58' 11" 

In the next reacli the above beds, modified in character and relative 
thickness, are again seen. The coaly portions, which are better ex- 
posed, are in mere strings. 

In the reach again next following there is further modification. No. 4, 
is reduced to about 4' 6*, and consists chiefly of blue shales and coal, 
alternating every 3 or 4 inches. 

Brought forward 

Grits, dip W. N. W. 15° 

Blue sands and carbonaceous grit .... 


In next reach we find the junction with the Borasukwa stream 
where Nos. 1 and 2 are repeated. No. 1 being thicker and more varied in 
character, including massive sandstones and thin layers of carbonaceous 
shale^ and No. 3 slightly more coaly, dip 10° to 30° west of north. 

In the reach next beyond the junction these shales include one band 
of coal 1' 6" f besides this there are several thinner seams with varying 
thickness of coal. 

=• Table of Assays of Coal in chapter VII. 

( 76 ) 










So great is the difference in appearance in this part of the section, 
that it is difficult to regard it as representing the same horizon as that 
to which Nos. 1 and 2 belong. As No. 1 is not really the highest bed, 
but only apparently so in consequence of the faulted junction with the 
Mahadevas, it follows that we get higher beds to the dip. 

The section of these in the next reachj dip, 15°, to 30° west of north, 
is, [ascending) — 

(a). Carbonaceous shales, with coaly layers . . . 30' C/' 

(b). Sandstone, parting 1' 6'' 

(c). Same as («) 18' 0" 

(d). White sandstones . 25' 0" 

The descending section is again resumed in the reach beyond the 
junction with the Sukri stream : sandstones, N.-N.-W. at 60°. These 
correspond to No. 10 of the Aurunga section on p. 73, so that the 
modifying effects produced by interpolation receive further illustration 
here by comparison of the beds in the two sections which have been 
measured above that horizon. 

Although I shall have to mention some seams which occur in the 

Last exposure of car- ^^^^^^^T ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ i« *^^ ^^^^ ^^^0°^ ^evel- 
bonaceous zone. opment of the carboniferous zone in the Aurunga 

field. It does not, I am sorry to say, give any better, indeed not even so 

good a promise, as did the Rajbar section, of including any valuable 


The next area to be described is that which lies west of Jaloom or 

Zalim, and is traversed in part by the Gowa and Aurunga rivers. The 

section in the Gowa river is not very perfect ; there 
Area west of Zalim. 

are a number of seams of carbonaceous shales 

parted by sandstones -, some of these contain coaly layers, but none are 

clearly exposed. One fragment of loose coal 3 inches thick was bright and 

of excellent quality, but I failed to find the source. The dips of 

these seams average 10° to north, but in places they roll a good 


( 77 ) 

78 ball: geology of aubunga and hutae coal fields. 

They are not likely to include a workable thickness of coal, but 

„ , t , J- should it ever be desired to test them, a boring or 

Seams probably of no •> o 

value. trial pit west of the village of Gowa would prove 

their quality. 

In the Ghotwa river some thin carbonaceous shales occur, resting 
immediately on a narrow marginal zone of Talchirs. 

At Hurkha there is a local development of ironstones of no great 

The bed o£ the Aurunga up to Dhudwa is frequently traversed by 

the boundary. In several cases the lowest beds 
Section in Anrunga. , . , i i m i i • 

are yellowish sandstones, apparently Talchirs. 

The sections of Barakar sandstones oflFer no particular points for note, 

save that anticlinal and synclinal rolls are very abundant. The map 

will serve to explain the nature of the faulted junction, shewing how 

the Mahadevas have been let down into contact with the three older 

groups respectively at different points along the line. 

In the neighbourhood of Latiahar and thence westward the Panchet 

and Raniganj groups have disappeared, and the 
Barakars at, and west . . o i •« i • • i 

of, Latiahar diminished thickness now existing of the Barakars is certainly 

in thickness. , -, . , • ii j. tt r ±^ • ' 

very much less than m the. east. How tar this is 
to be attributed to original limitation of deposit, how far to subsequent 
denudation, it is not easy to say. It is quite probable that the upper 
groups never were deposited so far west; and, on the other hand, it seems not 
unlikely that some portion of the Barakar sequence has been denuded 
away, though it may be difficult to prove the same. Be this as it may, it 
is certain that an outlier of Mahadevas rests directly on sandstones and 
conglomerates, whose lithological characters resemble those of the rocks 
forming the lowest zone in the east of the field. The Barakar rocks 
near Latiahar, so far as they are seen, shew signs of considerable disturb- 
ance, due no doubt to the proximity of three lines of fracture, viz., 
a pair of east and west faults, and a cross-fault which bounds the field 
up to Putkee, 

( 78 ) 


From Dudwah westward the Aurunga winds to and fro across the 
boundary, so yielding interrupted sections of sand- 

tlntS?""^* '^''*''*'' *'°°° ^*°^^^ ^^^ carbonaceous shales, which for the most 
part dip at high angles northwards. No coal is 
seen in this portion of the Aurunga or its tributaries. In the succeeding 
reaches of the Aurunga up to Putkee, sandstones, with rare carbonaceous 
shales, are the only rocks seen. At the three points, vide map, where the 
boundary strikes the river tangentially, the sandstones are either 
vertical or dip away at high angles. In the section west of Putkee the 
junction is undoubtedly faulted, and some pebble-beds shew signs of 
partial vitrification. Half a mile further on the river enters an oval tract 
occupied by an outlying basin of Mahadevas, presently to be described ; 
where it again passes into Barakars, it discloses a narrow zone consisting 
of sandstones and conglomerates, with one band of carbonaceous shale, 
which dip S.-S.-E. at angles rising from 25°, to the vertical. Although 
it is clear that both here and on the southern margin of this basin the 
thickness of the Barakars is reduced to 200 feet or so at the utmost, 
none of the sections give distinct evidence of 
ofuncoSrm%r^'*^^''''^ unconformity. In each stream, on the other hand, 
there seems to be a steady sequence upwards from 
the Barakar grits to the red Mahadeva sandstones. In the extreme 
western extension of the field, white pebble conglomerates, without any 
very distinct bedding, and forming series of low hills, prevail over every 
other form of rock. There still remain to be described the Barakar 
rocks of several outliers in the vicinity of this field. 

Outliers. — Four detached deposits which include Barakar rocks are 
known to exist in the vicinity of the Aurunga 
end of field!* north-east g^j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ extensive, and in other 
respects the most important of these, is situated 
beyond the north-east end of the field, and at an elevation which must 
average 200 feet above the level of the neighbouring portions of the 
field south of Balu-naggar. A very complete section of this area is 
afibrded by the stream which, starting from Buruhmoria, runs round 

( 79 ) 


iby Palee and Dudhuria to Khuriadih. The bottom beds, seen in the 
section, south of the first-named locality, consist of a ferrus^inous con- 
glomerate, with angular fragments of quartz, dip 20° west, covered by 
clunchy white and grey shales, ironstones and carbonaceous shales. 
The principal bed of the latter includes some coaly layers, but only 
a thickness of about one foot is exposed. Close by this section, in the 
high ground east of Sirka, there is a low range about 50 feet high, half 

a mile long, which is made up of ironstones- 
Ironstones at Sirka. . 

includmg a fair proportion of excellent quality. 

The whole surface of this range is honeycombed with holes, made for the 

purpose of extracting the ore. Resuming the section in the stream south 

of Sirka, there are sandstones, with white beds and ironstones ; gneiss then 

interrupts the continuity, after which there is a much disturbed section 

of white and grey shales, with carbonaceous layers 
sectbn^ °^*^^ ^ "^^^ ^^^ ironstones in abundance, some of which are 

5 inches thick, and have yielded on assay 45*3 of 
metallic iron. West of this there is another break in which gneiss occurs ; 
the stream then traverses sandstones with low dips to west and north- 
west, changing further on to the east. After an interval, the next rock 
exposed near Dudhuria is a seam consisting chiefly of carbonaceous 

shale of uncertain thickness; it is followed by 
shatr''^'^'^"''''''"''' another, and then they are repeated, and a third 

exposed, by a dome-like roll of the beds. The 
descending section of this dome, taken on west side, is as follows : — 

Seam, very staly coal, includes thin band 

of ironstone, 50' at 20° "^7.= 17' 1" 


Seam, 130' at 20° W.-S.-W. = . 44' 4" 

Sandstones, with carbonaceous shales. 

Seam, 160' at 15° W.-N.-W. = 41' 4" 

The details of these seams are not clearly seen, but I do not think 
it probable that there is any workable thickness of good coal ; however, 
as the occurrence of good coal in this vicinity, owing to the proximity of 
( 80 ) 


the ironstones, would be of considerable importance, it would be advisable 
to sink a couple of trial pits in order to thoroughly test the seams. 
Higher in the sequence than the beds forming this dome, there are carbona- 
ceous shales with ironstones ; these are well exposed 
huria°'^^ one a u - -^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^..^^^ bank, where, in a thickness 
of about 30 feet, 10 per cent, consists of layers of 
ironstone, which are never more than 6 inches thick. The individual 
layers have not a wide extension, being of lenticular shape ; but as they 
die out and reappear by rapid interpolations, the total thickness at any 

particular spot is pretty constant. A specimen of 
Black-band. iiii i p i-i i-i -ttio 

black-band ore irom this locality yielded 33*7 per 

cent, of metallic iron. From this northwards up to Koriadih the section 

is much interrupted, occasional outcrops of sandstone only being seen. 

To the west of this line of section there is at Ghotam a low range 

about a mile long, which, like the one at Sirka, is 
Ironstone at Ghotam. ■, . n r -i n • 

• chieny formed ot ironstone. A specimen of 

Ghotam ore yielded 39*4 per cent, of iron j but the 
mah5°'*°''^ ^* ^'^- richest ore was obtained from some borings half a 

mile west of Kurmahie, the yield of iron being 56*6. 
Various other sections of these rocks were examined on the edge of the 
scarp near Ghotam and Dudhuria, which it is useless to describe in detail 
here ; but it should be mentioned that there are caps of sandstones and 
conglomerates on the semi-detached hills near Balu-naggar. 

There is so much irregularity of stratification, that it is difficult to assign 
a definite thickness to this deposit, but where greatest it maybe 300 feet. 
The general ascending sequence appears to be — 

Angular conglomerate. 
WMte and grey clays. 
General sequence. Carbonaceous shales. 


These sandstones I believe to be of Barakar age, and the ironstoneSj 
like those of Rajbar, must therefore be referred to the same group. No 
P ( SI ) 


traces of Talchirs were met in this area. The prospect of the seams of 
carbonaceous shales being found to contain good coal is very slender. 
This is the more to be regretted since ironstone of good quality is in 
great abundance, and the crystalline limestone is close by. The area of 
this ironstone field is about 4 square miles. 

The next outlier to be mentioned is found north of Masiatu, and 
consists of claySj sandstones and conglomerates, 

Outlier north of which occupy an area of less than half a square 
Mariatu. . 

mile. These are perched on a very irregular 

pedestal of metamorphic rocks, the elevation of the lowest beds varying 

within 100 feet in different sections. This deposit offers no particular 

points for further notice. 

The third outlier is situated beyond the southern boundary of the 

field near Nowagarh. It occupies about 2 

Outlier north of ^.g j^ijeg in about half of which Talchir rocks 

Nowagarn. ^ ' • 

are found. These are only exposed on the west, being 

overlapped on all the other sides. The Barakar beds consist of sand- 
stones and conglomerates similar in character to those of the adjoining 
parts of the field. There are only traces of carbonaceous shales, and the 
rocks o-enerally present no particular points of interest. 

The last outlier occurs just outside the boundary north of Toobed ; 
the rocks are red shales, and occupy a very small area. 

Section 3. — Raniganj Group. 

There are few clear sections of these rocks exposed, and as they 

shew a departure from the normal lithological characters of the group 

in a comparative scarcity of calcareous bands, and a prevalence of soft 

yellow sandstones not unlike those occurring in the next succeeding 

Panchet o-roup, it has not always been easy to discriminate them.^ The 

boundaries which have been drawn therefore must be understood to be, 

to a great extent, arbitrary. 

a Some of these yellow heds particularly reminded me of the Panchet sandstones of 
the Damuda section in the Eanigan j field at Deoli, where the reptilian fossils were found. 

( 82 ) 


No fossils l)ave been discovered in them, and the correlation is there- 
„ „ . ^ , . fore wholly established by g-eolojyical position and 

No fossils. Correlation _ "^ J ^ n i. 

by lithological and goo- lithological resemblance to beds in the adjoining 
logical characters. 

Karanpura field. 

In the Sukri, west of Mungra, the Barakar beds are covered up by 
soft yellow false-bedded sandstones, with rare bands of calcareous sand- 
stones. The transition to the Panchets is not well marked, and the 

position of the boundary consequently doubtful. 
Boundaries doubtful. "^ 

In fact, when first examined I thought I had but 
one group to deal with. The dip of these yellow beds averages 15°, 

and the thickness I estimate here at from 900 

to 1,000 feet. In all other sections it is pro- 
bably less. 

In the southern branch of the Sukri occurs the already described 

junction near Pukrar, which appears to indicate internal overlap in the 

Raniganjes. Another section of these beds is 
Section near Toobed. roii, c ^ • mii -r. 

afforded by the Sukri near Toobed. Kestmg on 

the Barakars there are fine sandstones with a dip of 8°, to east-south-east ; 

these are followed by yellow sandstones which dip 15° to south-east, and 

soon becoming flat are covered by alluvium, so that the topmost beds of the 

sequence, underlying the Mahadevas, are not seen, 
by Mahadevas."^^^ '^^^^ -'•* ^^ possible that the beds so covered are Panchets, 

but immediately south of the village the Maha- 
devas come so close that these highest beds must be overlapped. The 
Sections west of ^^^^ section is in the Sukri west of Toobed, where, 
'^°°^^*^' resting on the previously described highly tilted 

ripple-marked Barakar sandstones and carbonaceous shales, there are 
yellow sandstones, with carbonaceous shales, having the same dip of about 
55°. These are succeeded by fine yellow sandstones and sandy shales, with 
dips falling from west-south-west 42.°, to west 15° and west 5°, upon which 
rests a bed of gritty sandstone that should probably be regarded as the base 
bed of the Panchets ; resting upon it there are gently rolling greenish ^nd 

( ^3 ) 

84 ball: geology of aueunga and hutar coal fields. 

purple clays of typical Paucliet character, after which we pass again on 
to yellow sandstone, of which numerous sections are afforded in the 
streams near Bundodag-, where, owing to the vicinity of the fault, they 
dip at angles of 50°, and even 70°. In the small area cut off by the fault, 
bluish carbonaceous shales, as in the previous section, are associated with 
the yellow beds, which appear to be generally conformable to the under- 
lying Barakars, to which however they present the strongest contrast in 
lithological characters. At the extreme end of this portion of the 
field, where the two faults {vide map) intersect, these beds have been 
squeezed into a V-shaped trough, on the southern side of which a portion 
of the beds have been cut out by the east- west fault, as it is only on the 
south side of the V that a seam of carbonaceous shale is seen, measuring 
9' 6", dip 50°. There is undoubtedly a zone of Panchet beds round 
the Sasung hill, but the sections are not very clear. 

We now pass to the section in the Bagh Digwa near Hoochloo. 

Overlying the Barakar section there, a series of 
wesTof HooSo^'^"^^' steeply inclined sandstones apparently belong 

to this group. These are soon covered by coarse 
oritty beds, which I should be inclined rather to refer to the Panchets, 
but it is not clear how they can be so, as further west there are, at an 
apparently higher horizon, calcareous sandstones of the well-known 
Raniganj type. It is possible that some of the beds higher in the 
sequence may mark a tongue of Panchets along the line of fault, but as 
the plotting of the river is very defective, I have not attempted to indi- 
cate this. On the other side of this fault there is a narrow strip of red 
clays belonging to the Panchets, which are soon covered by Mahadevas. 

To the west of this, surrounding Jugguldugga, there is a patch of 

Panchets cut ofl' by the fault, which are themselves 

dugja!''"* ^^ J"g§«l- surrounded by a narrow marginal zone of Raniganjes. 

These are of typical character, and include calcareous 

bands in the section seen in a small stream south-east of the village. 

In the loop bend of the Aurunga south-west of the village there is a 

small section of rolling sandstones of this group which rest on the much 

( 84 ) 


diminished zone of Barakars. In the next loop bend of the Aurunga 
to the west there are similar sandstones, and with them some carbona- 
ceous shales. Those at the north end of the reach are in crushed con- 
tact with a peculiar massive white grit which has some resemblance to 
Barakars, but must from its position, I believe, be referred to the Pauchets. 
In the Aurunga west of Gowa the Raniganj beds are not clearly 

seen, but they must have thinned out considerably, 
Raniganies thin out, . , ■ , ^ . 

smce they are restricted to a very narrow zone 

between the purple Panchet clays and certain grits, which must, I think 
be regarded as Barakars. These sections and the one above described in 
the Sukri where the faults intersect are the most western points where 
rocks exhibiting the standard Kaniganj lithological characters have been 
met with. It seems most probable that, where rocks of this age are 
met with further west, they will be found to have assumed the lithologi- 
cal character which distinguishes the Kamthis, 

It is singular that the change should be found so distinctly to the 
west of the watershed of the Damuda. I have already endeavoured to 
explain this on a previous page. 

There still remain two small areas of these rocks to be described ; 

K i.u £ T they are situated in the raviney ground north of 

Ai-eas north of Jug- -^ "^ ° 

guldugga. ^]2e Jugguldugga hills which is drained by the 

Subano river. The limits owing to the nature of the ground and the 
want of striking contrast between some of the beds of the two groups 
are olten very obscure. The most noteworthy fact is that they include 
the only seam of real Raniganj coal met with in this field. The seam 
is only 1' 6' thick, dip 25°. The quality of the coal is indicated in the 

table of assays. It turns out to be a worse fuel 
Coal seam. . it, 

than I had expected from its appearance and light- 
ness. There are other minor seams close by. The principal associated 
rocks are dense, micaceous, calcareous, fine-grained sandstones and loose 
soft sandy shales, some of them not very distinctly separable from the 
rocks which occur in the region between Udipura and the Jugguldugga 
hills, and which I have referred to the Panchet group. 

( 85 ) 


' ; Section 4.-r—pANCHET Group. 

In the previous section the indication of the limits of the Raniganj 
group has involved frequent allusion to these rocks, the distribution of 
the two being very similar and co-terminous. The generality of the 
Conformity to Eani- ^^ctions tend to shew that the two groups are 
S^^i^^' conformable in most cases, but there are several 

which make it doubtful that this conformity is universal, notably the two 
sections just described in the Sukri west of Jugguldugga; and if the soft 
greenish beds, which at Deobar underliq the eastern end of the Mabadeva 
outlier beyond the Aurunga, are Panchets, there is evidence of very com- 
plete overlap, as there is no trace of the Raniganjes in that section. 
There are several leading lithological types among the rocks which 

go to make this group. Of these, the highest are 
Lithological types. 

the purple and green clays and associated shales. 

These are somewhat local in their distribution, being only found in the, 

Sukri section near Kaima in the Bagh Digwa, west of Hoohloo, and in 

the Aurunga north of Kaima. 

The next types are grits, of which there are several varieties, some 
loose and ferruginous, others soft, greenish and friable, and still others 
which are white and felspathic, and are not easily distinguishable from 
Barakar rocks. At first I thought that the generally undecomposed 
condition of the felspar furnished a means for distinguishing these from 
Barakars, in which the felspar is usually in a decomposed condition and 
more generally disseminated. This does not always hold good,,as 
Barakar grits, including angular fragments of undecomposed felspar, were 
subsequently met with. Rocks of either of the above types are not 
likely to be mistaken for Raniganj beds, but there is still another type, 
or rather class, exemplified by greenish micaceous sandstones, occasionally 
calcareous. To distinguish these from very similar beds in the Raniganj 
group is by no means easy, and this the more especially as they occur at 
the base. To this cause is to be attributed much of the doubt which 
must always attach to the determination of the precise position of the 
Raniganj-Panchet boundary. 
{ 86 ) 


In one place oi)ly in the Sukri section near Semuria did I meet with 

^ , any case, of the occurrence of carbonaceous matter 

Carbonaceous matter. 

in these rocks; the traces of it were very slight, 

being- little more than black stains. A. constant outlook for fossils in 

these beds did not result in the discovery of a 

Fossils. . ^ n ' 

single fragment. Some of the thin micaceous shaly 
sandstones resemble the E^theria beds of the R-aniganj area, but I found 
in them no trace of any organic remains. 

From the varying width of the zone of these rocks found surround- 
ing the base of the Mahadeva hills, the pro- 
Overlap by Mahadevas. ,..,,. 

bability that they are in places overlapped is very 

great. Indeed, at Toobed, this seems certainly to be the case; but besides 
this overlap unconformity there is, I believe, in the sections afforded by the 

Disturbance unconfor- «*^^^°^^ ^'^ *^^ ^^"^^ heiv^eeu Hurdee and Chehora 
^i^y- hill, south-east of Subano, evidence of regular dis- 

turbance unconformity : there is a steady dip southwards of a thickness of 
several hundred feet of the Panchets, almost up to the very foot of the 
Mahadeva scarp. There is certainly not interval sufficient for this whole 
thickness to be turned over so as to dip normally under the Mahadevas. 

Since, as I have shewn when treating of the Mahadevas generally, 
there is great probability of a considerable break in conditions of depo- 
sition, if not of time, between the Mahadevas and all preceding groups, 
the wonder is that there should not be more numerous cases of unconform- 
able superposition to be enumerated. 

The estimated thickness of the Panchet group in this area is 7U0 feet. 

Section 5. — Mahadeva Series. 
The principal area in the Aurunga field, occupied by these essentially 
hill-forming rocks, is a raised tract, extending in a north-west 
south-east direction for a distance of over six miles from Kaima to 
Hurdee. The beds dip inwards from the opposing scarps at angles of 
20° and under, so forming a synclinal trough, at the centre of which 
the. beds are for the most part horizontal. 

( 87 ) 


The maximum thickness does not exceed 500 feet in all probability, 

The rocks, as seen in the sections near Subano, 

consist primarily of dark reddish-brown, ferru- 
ginous sandstone, with extremely sparse strings of iron-stained quartz 
Lithological charac- pebbles, and occasional thin partings of dense red 
' clays ; there are also white loose-text«red grits, 

from which the iron has been segregated into dense ferruginous 

The physical characters of these rocks have been sufficiently indicated 

^, in the general sketch, and the overlap of the 

Physical characters. 

Panehets at Toobed, and the unconformable 
superposition on the same rocks to south-east of Subano have also been 
described. To the north-west of this hilly tract there is an outlying low 
hill near Sasung formed of these rocks. The beds rest upon Panehets, 
and are cut off by thefault on the south-west. The thickness is incon- 
siderable, probably under 100 feet. 

The next area occupied by rocks of this age is situated near Juggul- 
Area near Juggul- <^"ogra, and is about one square mile in extent. 
^^SS^- It is partly included between two of the main 

faults of the area, and the lowest beds are in consequence in contact with 
the edges of beds belonging to several different groups. These relations 
will be best understood by reference to the map. The rocks are pre- 
cisely similar to those just described ; the thickness 
of the beds is at present perhaps about 450 feet ; 
they form a synclinal basin, and, as is almost invariably the case 

with the Mahadevas, they are most eflficient water 
/ Perennial streams. t» • i i • • 

storers. Perennial streams are almost invariably 

to be found in their vicinity. This I also remarked upon in refer- 
ence to the Kamthi rocks of Hingir. 

The next area is situated to the west of the Jugguldugga hills, ex- 
Area east of Latia- lending thence to Latiaharl A good section is 
^^^- obtained in the deep-cut gorge between Satodeeh 

( 88 ) 


and Keenamand. The straightness of the boundaries, together with 

„,,,„, the varying nature of the contact beds, sufEcientlv 

Bounded by faults. . ' j 

prove the existence of a pair of bounding faults. 

This is further evidenced by the high inclinations of the beds, dipping 
from the faults on both sides, which thus form a very decided synclinal 
trough. I have already spoken of the obscurity of the relations near 
Eocks concealed near Latiahar. The rocks near the base of the hills 
Latiahar. ^^.q completely concealed by alluvium, but if I am 

right in relegating the anomalous beds to Talchirs, I think the rela- 
tions represented must be correct, and that the Mahadevas rest here upon 
Barakars, the Panchets and E-aniganjes having died out. 

The beds forming the Latiahar hill are, in part at least, highly tilted, 

rising to an elevation of about 900 feet above the 

village. The thickness cannot be less here than 

about 700 feet. 

At the foot of the hills south-east of Panripura I found some red 
shales of limited extension containing fossil plants. This was in im- 
mediate proximity to the line of faulty and it was not possible to deter- 
mine to which group they belonged. They arc 
overlaid by whitish sandstones of somewhat doubt- 
ful character, but higher on the slope are very similar red shales belong- 
ing to the Mahadevas. The fossils include species of Glossopteris, 
Vertehraria, Pecopteris and conifer seeds. It would be dangerous under 
the circumstances, to refer them to any definite horizon. 

About three miles to the west of Latiahar there is a small hill formed 
OutUer west of Latia- ^f these rocks, which is perh aps about 1 20 feet high. 
^^^* The beds here rest directly on Barakars. From an 

observation I made in the hot weather, when the jungle was bare and 
the lines of stratification visible in profile from a long distance off, I am 
inclined to believe that the beds have been faulted on the north, since it 
was then apparent that the lower beds of the southern scarp were cut 
out on the north. 

( 89 ) 


The last area occupied by these rocks is in the bed of the Aurunga^ 

at Deobar. Close to that village there is a section 
Outlier at Deobar. 

of some fine-grained greenish beds, which are 

possibly referable to the Panchets, as has been stated on a previous page ; 

these are covered up by a set of bright-red sandstones and shaleSj which 

have some local peculiarities, but may, I think, safely be referred to the 

Mahadevas. Towards the base there are grits, which are not readily 

Lithological charac- distinguishable from Barakars, but nothing 

teristics. could be stronger than the contrast afforded ,by 

the warm brick-red and purple hues of the topmost beds, to the cold, stone 

greys and dirty whites of the Barakar beds. In their physical charac- 

p, . , , . . teristics these beds differ from normal Mahade- 

tics. vas in that they do not rise to form hills, but the 

Aurunga discloses long scarps, 20 to 30 feet above the bed of the river. 

They form a shallow synclinal resting with apparent conformity on 

a very much thinned deposit of Barakars, The 

total thickness was not accurately ascertained, but 

may perhaps be about 250 feet. 

From the occurrence of ferruginous platy beds at the base of the sec- 
tion north of Nowagudha, which more closely resemble some of the 
beds of the eastern localities than do the higher members of the se- 
quence, I think it possible that the latter belong to the very highest 
zone in the whole area. 

90 ) 


The remarks made on previous pages with reference to the general 
physical structure of this field and its surroundings render it unneces- 
sary to preface the following stratigraphical details with any further 

description of them. The area of the field is 

78'6 square miles. The different formations being 

exposed in the following proportions : — 

Mahadeva Series 14'1 square miles. 

Barakar Group 57'0 „ „ 

Talchir „ .7-5 „ „ 

78*6 square miles. 

Section I. — Talchiu Group. 

At the extreme eastern end of the Hutar field, rocks belonging to 
the Talchir group occur at the base of the hills formed of Barakars, 
and occupy a marginal zone of varying width and thickness. Immediately 
under the Kande hill the deposit consists chiefly of boulder bed, which, 
together with some associated shales and sandstones, attains a thickness 
of about 200 feet. These are directly overlaid by from 250 to 300 feet 
of Barakar sandstones and conglomerates. From hence, in a south- 
westerly direction, the marginal zone can be traced only with great 
difliculty owing to the covering of talus and dense vegetation. 

Although I have represented it on the map as being continuous up 
to the Dauri river, I am doubtful about its being really so, as in several 
places the gneiss appeared to interrupt it, occurring up to elevations of 
about 100 feet on the slopes and being apparently directly covered by 
Barakars; but a distant view of the hill face stretching from Kande 
to the Dauri, obtained when the jungle had, for the most part, put on 
its yellow and brown tints, leads me to suppose that the Talchirs may 

{ 91 ) 

92 ball: geology of aueunga and hutar coal fields. 

really be continuous. A well marked line of green trees was seen to 
stretch westwards, with a slope of about 5°, from a point apparently at 
the level of the top beds of the Talchirs in the Kande hill, down to 
the level of the Dauri valley. This line of green trees evidently 
marked the position of an impervious stratum which arrested moisture — 
in all probability a Talchir shale. 

In the Dauri section from 80 to 100 feet of Talchirs are seen rest- 
ing naturally on the gneiss, a small outlying 
patch also occurring south of the main boundary. 
The bed immediately overlying the Talchirs in this section consists 
of a highly ferruginous sandstone which one might hesitate to include 
with Barakars were it not that it is associated with some small coal 
seams and other normal Barakar rocks. 

Beyond the Dauri the Talchirs are traceable for about a mile, after 
which they are overlapped, for it does not seem probable that the 
boundary which strikes south-south-west past 
Morwaie is a faulted one. 

From Kande westwards, along the northern boundary of the field, 

the marginal zone is traceable as a narrow strip, 

with perhaps one short interval, up to Ookamand. 

Beyond the village it spreads out suddenly, and the shales, which there 

thicken considerably, are spread over about half a square mile of ground. 

Again it narrows, and at Lohoor is overlapped completely. In this 

neighbourhood there is a trap dyke which traverses 
Trap dyke. , . . , . , 

the metamorphics with an irregular course. 

In the sections of this dyke which are exposed in the Teorohee Nadi at 

Kochilah and Ledgain small patches of Talchir shales are seen, which 

have been conserved from erosion by the protecting influence of the trap. 

West of Lohoor the zone spreads abruptly to a width of a mile, 
and in the Dauri there is a considerable section 


in which a thickness of possibly 300 feet is 
( 92 ) 


Towards the base the shales are traversed by a strong" dyke of trap 

which in the river section is nearly 50 yards 
Trap dyke. _ . , 

wide. Close to the top of the section there is a 

boulder bed, in which there are polished granite boulders up to 2 feet 

in diameter ; besides which there are well rounded masses of a dense 

Boulders of Vindhyan red quartzite, which are apparently litholog-ieally 

identical with a well known form of Vindhyan 

rock. In Sirguja I met with a similar deposit,* where, since there 

are no Vindhyan rocks within the present existing watershed, it 

seemed to be necessary to invoke the agency of ice, as affording the 

only possible means of transport from the Sone valley. It should 

be stated that there are Vindhyan quartzites of precisely similar 

character in the Mahanadi valley, but owing to the nature of the 

intervening country in each case, it is perhaps more likely that the 

boulders were carried from the Sone. 

Similarly here, the Vindhyan rocks, though nearer, occur north- 
wards, in which direction the present lines of drainage run. The sup- 
posed upheaval of the Palamow highlands, which is elsewhere discussed, 
would help in this case to support the view, that the boulders may 
have been transported southwards from the Sone valley by rivers running 
in an exactly opposite direction to the drainage system at present 
existing ; but that such a fall to the south ever existed is scarcely 
likely, and in the Sirguja case most improbable. It may be urged, 
on the other hand, that Vindhyan rocks possibly existed in siitt in both 
localities during the Talchir period, and were subsequently completely 
denuded away. In reply, it can only be said that there is not a particle 
of evidence to justify such an assumption. 

I am anxious to give some prominence to these remarkable cases. 
Since, subsequently to the publication of the Sirguja instance, an early 
opinion of mine^ as to the possible origin of the boulder bed has been 

a Records, 1873. Vol. VI page 28, note. 

b Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, Vol, vi, p. 116. 

( 93 ) 


cited* in support of the non-glacial origin. These cases of transport- 
ed Vindhyan boulders appear, however, to indicate a glacial period, 
quite as strongly as do the polished and striated boulders which have 
elsewhere been found. 

In the Dauri section west of the last-named locality, and at the 
corner of the loop bend east of Hurilong, there are pearly grey and 
lavender-coloured, much false-bedded sandstones, which are the high- 
est bed of this section. They present an extraordinary resemblance to 

Panchet beds. West of this section the Talchirs 
Koel Eiver section, 

are indistinctly traceable through Chercha up to 

the Koel, where they occupy a much narrowed zone, and are only seen 

on the western bank of the river near Hutar. 

Through Hutar and westwards they are found cropping out under 

the edge of the Barakars'^, till the vicinity of the 
Sections west of Hutar. 

Cheinpur road is reached south of Nowadih. Here 

again they are traversed by trap, and in the streams from Banulat there 

is a somewhat complicated section in which Talchirs, Barakars, gneiss, and 

then again Talchirs are met with. This section can only be explained by 

supposing the Talchirs and Barakars to be cut off, as is represented on the 

map, by the main bounding fault. A section of a similarly cut-off patch 

is obscurely exposed in the streams and raviney ground south of Chupatsi. 

The marginal zone is further traceable in a number of sections up to the 

Atee river near Bijka. In the Sutgurhea, the shales in contact with the 

gneiss are permeated by veins of pseudomorphic 
Boundary faulted. 

quartz ; elsewhere along the boundary, there are 

indications of induration and crushing; and the distorted junction 

exposed in the Atee section clearly proves the existence of a fault, 

which is continued to the south-west past Bijka hill, where the Barakars 

a Proceedings, Geological Society, London, 1877, Vol. xxxiii, p. 8. 

^ In one or two sections there seemed to be overlap of tlie Barakars on to the gneiss ; 
hut from the broken nature of the ground, these sections are obscure, "and their exact positions 
difficult to determine. 

( 94 ) 


and Talchirs are completely cut out, aud the Mahadevas lowered to tlic 
level of the gueiss. 

At the western extremity of the field a very pretty confirmation of 
the existence of a fault, which is otherwise pretty evident, is afforded 
by the occurrence of a small patch of Talchir boulder bed in the Supahi 
river, [at the foot of the Maliadeva scarp. The full force of this 
will be better appreciated by a reference to the map than by any 

On the south' boundary of the field there still remain some Talchir 

^ , , . , ^. , deposits to be noted. The first of these is at 

lalcmrs at Bmda. 

Binda, where the rocks consist chiefly of sandstones 
and shales underlying a small area of Barakars, which is cut off by a fault, 
gneiss being thrust up in the angle formed by it with the terminal 
fault just mentioned. 

Talchirs are again seen at the base of the section in the Supahi, 

north-west of Purro, where the lowest bed ap- 
Talcliirs at Purro. , ^ 

pears to graduate off into a decomposed gneiss. 

Hence eastwards they are more or less distinctly traceable up to the 
Purro stream, where a boulder bed rests naturally on the gneiss. 

Further east, though not exposed in the Koel section, Talchirs pro- 
bably occur underneath the sandstone, as they are well developed in the 
streams near Mundul, where liver-coloured shales are more abundant 
Talchirs between Mun. ^^^^ elsewhere. There is also a considerable 
dul and Hetlee. boulder bed which constitutes the principal 

thickness in a zone which laps round the base of the Mundul ranare. 
from hence eastwards up to Hetlee^ where the boundary is faulted 
and the Talchirs cut out. 

Section 2. — Baeakar Group. 

At the eastern end of the field in the Kande hill station there is a 
Physical characters thickness of about 300 feet of sandstones and con- 
nnusual. glomcrates which spread thence westward, form- 

ing flat-topped ridges of a character most unlike that normally 

( 95 ) 


exhibited by[Barakai's. Certain sandy ironstones and highly ferrugin- 
ous slightly conglomeratic grits, which are seen in the sections of these 
ridges on the slopes near Ookamand and Lohoor, made me for a time sup- 
pose that these highlands were in part formed of Mahadevas. Finding, 
however, that these ferruginous beds in some cases occur near the bottom 
of the sections, being covered by typical Barakar conglomerates, I have 
been compelled to class all the rocks which occur above the Talchirs on 
the east side of the Koel as Barakars. The first regular cross-section 
of these beds is obtained in the Dauri, where the 
lowest Barakar bed at the southern end is a 
highly^ ferruginous sandstone which rests upon the Talchirs north of 
Saidope, as has been already indicated on a previous page when describing 
the Talchir section. To it succeed normal Barakar sandstones and grits, 
many of them, both here and in the Ghorassan river, being eroded so as 
to form a great variety of fantastically shaped pot-holes, which sometimes, 
by the breaking down, of the parting walls, have coalesced to form large 
reservoirs, in which fish abound. In the north to south reach above 
the Talchirs there occur, associated with the sandstones, four seams of 
coal and one of carbonaceous shale, which average 
only from 4''' to 6" in thickness. In the next reach 
there is a larger seam of about 2' &' -, locally this dips to south-west, but 
that is merely due to a roll, the general dip of the rocks being northwards. 

At the junction of the Ghorassan with the Dauri occurs the section 
measured by Captain Sage { vide p. 4). The seam, which contains some 
good coal% measures about 3' 6". Apparently it is exposed for some dis- 
tance on the hills flanking the Ghorassan valley, 
since fragments from it are found in the bed of 
that river some distance up, though the seam is not itself exposed. The 
dip is 5°, to west. Soon afterwards the beds turn round to a southerly 
direction, and if they were more constant in character and thickness, we 
should find a repetition of the just described section on this, the other. 

a See table of assays in ^Economic chapter. 
96 ) 


side of the sjucliuah It is impossible, however, to recognize the foregoing 
section in that which follows. At the bend north-east of Badhunyah 
there is a seam which includes 15 inches of bright 
streaked but dense coal* dipping at 10", to 
south-east. Apparently a continuation of the same seam occurs in the 
next reach, with dip to south-west ; and in the north to south reach north 
of Badhunyah and south-east of Hurilong, there is a seam which measures 
about 40 feet horizontally, with a dip of 10°, to 
south, representing a thickness of nearly 8 feet. 
The coal is highly bituminous, the most so of any specimen examined. 
Its small proportion of fixed carbon {vide assay) would render it defi- 
cient in heating power. From its thickness, and being more easy of 
access than any of the others, it might prove to be of value, which the 
others certainly are not. In the wide hilly tract included between the 
Dauri and the Koel, from Hutar up to its junction with the Thatha river, 
I failed to find any trace of carbonaceous matter in any of the numerous 
streams. Close to Badhunyah, there is a sandstone which is remarkable 
for containing numerous marble-like concretions. 

In the neighbourhood of Morwaie the sandstones are often highly 
Ironstones at Mor- ferruginous, and ironstones and red clays are of 
^*^®* frequent occurrence ; but the former, though fur- 

nishing an ample supply for the native furnaces, are, to the best of my 
belief, neither here nor anywhere else within the Hutar field in suffi- 
cient abundance to justify the belief that they could be employed pro- 
fitably in the manufacture of iron on the European system, but to this 
subject I shall return again in the Economic chapter. South of 
Morwaie the Barakars are cut ofi" by a well-marked fault. On the line 
of fracture associated with the fault rock I found some magnetite, par- 
tially altered into red hsematite. 

I shall now describe the sections in the Koel and its tributaries, from 

Sections in Koel and north to south. First I must allude to the pre- 

its tributaries. ^^-^^g notices. Captain Sage's Burra river appears 

» I have not included the assay of this specimen in the table, as it would, being a use- 
less coal as regards thickness, unfairly depreciate the average. The composition is, 
moisture 7-6, volatile 30-6, carbon 38-2. ash 23-6. 

G ( 97 ) 


to be the same as tjie one ealle(i the Muugurdar by Mr. Homfray, as 
both speak of the near proximity of Hutar. 

Previous notices. 

Unfortunately I find that when on the spot I 
omitted to enqui]|-e. |he names of the two branches of the river at Hular. 
The true Muugurdar river^ however^ joins the Koel nearly four miles 
north of the coal-field at Hutar, and, to the best of my belief does not 
traverse any outlying pa^ich of m^^apres, but I ha,ve not examined its 
course throughout. What r,iyer I^r. Homfray indicates by the name 
Barwellia, which he speaks of as ', rmining to the eastward, ' i.e., coming 
from the west, unless it be the Supahij I do not know;. I have already 
commented on some other of Mr. l^Lom^ray's sta;ten;ients. 

^n the Koel, Talchirs are seen under the west bank ijp to within a 
short distance o^ the Hutar river. Barakars then supervene, and the fol- 
lowing section is found in the southern, Nowadih^ branch of the river 
close to the lower tolehs of the village. Eesting on sandstone there is a 

seam about 5 feet thick, of which the bottom, 1 foot. 
Seams at Hutar. 

consists of coal, dip Ih", to south. Above this there 

are shales very like Talchirs in lithological characters, followed by an 

irregular seam about 10, feet thick, including 1 foot of bad coal at 

top and 1' 4" of good coal at base [vide assay). This seam is traceable 

westwards for about a mile. Although it varieis somewhat in character, 

the thickness of the incl,uded coal reipains pretty constant. Tflje N<»:wa- 

dih hill to the south is composed of sandstones and congloiperates, with 

which there are some ironstones, which are smelted 
Ironstones at Nowadih. ' . 

by the Aguriahs of seyeial neighbpuring hamlets. 

This neighbourhood, as a site of iron manufacture, wa§ mentioned by 

Captain Sage in 1830, and from the,great abundance of slag, itis. eyident 

that there have been furnaces here for a lon^ period. 

From the mouth of the Hutar river to that of the S^upahi, the Koel 

exhibits a broken section of sandstones with south- 

Supahi section. _ n • 

erly dip. In the Supahi, from its mouth up to the 
point wheye it leaves the Doothoo hillsj which are formed of Mahadevas, 
there is a more or less interrupted section of grits, sandstones, and 
conglomerates, with dips of from 10° to 15°, to south, 
( 98 ) 


At a short distance ou either side of the Daltonganj road-crossiug-, 

there are carbonaceous shales, those on the west 
Abnormal top beds. 

including %" of coal. From the occurrence in other 

sections of certain peculiar beds towards the top, it at one time seemed pro- 
bable that these were representatives o£ a group or sub-group between the 
true Barakars and the Mahadevas in the portion of the Hutar field 
which lies west of the Koel. In this particular section, however, the 
beds seem to be normal Barakars. Owing to the steadiness of the dip, 
this section and that of the neighbouring Hurtah river afford unusual 
opportunities for measuring the thickness of beds intervening between the 
top of the Talchirs and the bottom of the Mahadevas. Estimating the 
average dip at 12° and the horizontal distance 2|- miles, the thickness 
would be about 2,750 feet. This is the maximum thickness at the 

centre of the basin, and it is much in excess of 
Thickness. +, « 

that found elsewhere. 

The most important of the Supahi tributaries is the one which rises 

in the Hurtah or Hudur hill, and bears the same 

Section in Hurtab. . 

name. The section which commences near Titaro 
(Toleh of map), a small Aguriah hamlet, is as follows : — 

Talchir shales. 

Grits and shales of uncertain thickness. 

1. Flaggy shales, rolling, say 800' at 5°= . . . .70' 0" 

2. Sandstones, 400' at 5 « = . . . . , . 34' 9" 

3. Sandstone and sandy shale, part concealed, 220' at 10°=^ 38' 2" 

4. Seam, dip lO" 3' 0" 

5. Sandstones - 17' 4" 

6. Seam — 

a. Stony carbonaceous shale . . . . 2* 2" 

b. Coal 1' 2" 

c. Carbonaceous shale 0' 10" 

d. Coal 1' 0" 

5' 2" 

7. Sandstones and grit, 27' at 15^ = . . , , . 6' 10" 

8. Coal . 0' 2" 

9. Grit 5' 0" 

Here there is a slip and repetition of section — 

Seam — A This illustrates the rapid 

CoaZ, seen , . .1' 6w changes in character of beds 

Sandstones . .17' 5" V which so frequently take 

Coal . . .0' 2" I place. 

Grit ■ . . .10' 0"j 

( 99 ) 


10. Interval, 50' at 10° = 8' 8" 

11. Sandstones, 32' at 10° = . , . . . . 5' &' 

12. Sandstone with irregular band of coal, mostly stony . 3' 6'' 

13. Grit with scattered pebbles, 280' at 8° = . . . 38' 10'' 

14. Interval, in which some thin carbonaceous layers occur, 

50' at 15°= . . . , . . , . 12' 10" 

15. Sandstones, 92' at 10° = 

16. Coal .,.,..,... 

17. Sandstones, 18' at 10° = 

18. Coal . , , . 

19. Carbonaceous shales, with thin layers of coal and sand- 

stones, 165 ' at 120" = 

20. Grits, 95' at 15°= 

21. Carbonaceous shales, layers of coal 6" thick towards top 

and bottom, 60' at 12° = 

[Beds here distorted and repeated.] 

22. Sandstones and grit 

23. Interval, in which some carbonaceous shales are seen to 

occur, 50' at 10 = . 8' 8" 

24. Sandstones and grits, including 4" band of coal at centre, 

110'atlO°= . 19' 0" 

25. Coal, shaly -impure. 

26. Thin sandstones, and carbonaceous shales, 150' at 8° = . 20' 8'' 

27. Sandstones and grits, with irregular nests and layers of 

carbonaceous matter, 150' at 8° = . . . .20' 0'' 

28. Sandy and carbonaceous shales, 50' at 10° = . • . 8' 7" 

29. Carbonaceous sandstone 3' 6" 

30. Seam — 

Appears to consist mainly of a dense, rather dull coal, but 

portions with bright layers, flaky towards base, dip 8'' . 8' 0'' 

31. Sandstones 100' at 8' = 13' 10" 

32. /Seam- 

Carbonaceous shale . ■ . . 0' 4" 

Sh&ljcoal . . . . 2' 0" . . .2' 4" 

















33. Sandstones and grits cut into gorge, 300' at 10» = . . 52' 2" 

34. Seam- 

Coal with sandstone, possibly ^rd coal, 50' at 8" = . 6' 10" 

35. Sandstones and grits with conglomerates . . > . 60' 0^' 

36. Seam — 

Quality inferior, but part concealed, 100' at 10* . ■ .17' 5'' 
( 100 ) 



Beyond this, up to the junction with Supahi, there are no more 
seams exposed. The rocks are grits and conglomerates with rare car- 
bonaceous layers. Among the above the seam of real value appears to 
be No. 30. The average composition of two specimens is good/ and 
the thickness and dip both favourable to working. 

To the north and north-west of this line of section small patches 
of Barakars have been cut out by the main bounding fault. The 
Section in Chupatsi fi^^t is tolerably clearly seen, but the second seems 
river. ^Q Ijg complicated by the occurrence of some 

small slips parallel to the main bounding fault. In the Chupatsi 
stream there is a section of the carbonaceous zone shewing a diminution 
in the number and thickness of the seams. There are here in all about 
six, the coal being in bands from 6" up to 2' 6" in thickness. 

In the Satghoria river there is another cross-section of this zone. 
Section in Satghoria The highest seam varies, within the limits of the 
^^^^'^■- width of the stream, from 1' to nearly 4'. Below 

it come a series of seams whose average thicknesses are as follows — 3', 2.', 
1', 1', r. These occur in alternation with massive beds of grits and 
sandstones of from 12 to 20 feet in thickness. There is no workable 
thickness of coal exposed in either of these last sections. In the 
almost entire absence of shales, they contrast with the section seen 
near Hutar, but very closely resemble the sections near Purro on the 
south of the field which will be described further on. 

The last tributary of the Supahi in this part of the field whose 
section remains to be described, is the Atee. At 
the point south-west of Bijka, where the Atee 
river leaves the hills, there are Barakar grits and pebble beds with a 
narrow border of Talchirs. The dips fall rapidly from 50° to 20°. 
The lowest beds are much indurated and crushed by faulting, which is 
further indicated by the presence of a ridge of fault rock which strikes 
hence towards the Bijka hill. Among the broken fragments close to 
the line of fracture there are some pieces of coal which are deriv^ed from 

* Vide Table of Assays. 

( 101 

103 ball: geology of aurunga and hutae coal fields. 

a seam now concealed. In the river section south-west of the 
village there are, resting on the typical Barakar grits and pebble beds^ 
some fine sandy shales and green silty Talchir-like clays which, taken 
in connection with other like exposures, suggested the possibility, as I 
have already stated, of there being in this field a group of beds separ- 
able alike from Barakars and Mahadevas. This 
view I have been obliged to relinquish. In the re- 
mainder of the Atee section, from Bijka up to the junction with the Supahi, 
these green beds occur with the grits, and no coal seams are exposed. 

In the Koel river, from the mouth of the Supahi to the mouth of the 
Thatha, sandstones, &c., with south dip are occa- 

Section in Koel river. • ^^ ;] 

sionally exposed. 

In the Thatha river there are several seams of carbonaceous shale with 

mi, +!,„ coalv layers, but their position is uncertain, owing 

Section m inatna j j ^ x t. i 

river. to the inaccurate plottmg of the stream. Beyond 

the village the section is interrupted by the already alluded to Morwaie 
fault in conjuction with which is the hot spring already described. 

Further east a seam of about 1' 4" of coal is 
^^"^' seen twice in the bed of the river, being bent 

by the fault into a synclinal. 

The section in the Koel, from the mouth of the Thatha to the 
Mondul stream, again exposes nothing note- 
bee ion m worthy till near the latter spot, when a coal 
seam is partially exposed under the eastern bank. This is the only 
seam uncovered in the whole course of the 
Koel. The coal is much decomposed, and as only 
three feet is exposed, it is not possible to say whether the seam is of 
value ; the dip is 10°, rising to 15°. The long hog-backed ridge which 
strikes eastward from this is made up of grits and conglomerates, and 
possibly coincides with a branching line of fracture, since fragments of 
fault rock are found in some abundance on the slopes. Half a mile to 
the north, fault rock, which marks the position 
East and west fault. . .ri, • 

of the Morwaie east and west faulty is seen 

(. 103 ) 

riuTlii field: barakar group. 103 

ift situ. In its neighbourhood the Barakar grits are inlcusely dis- 
turbed and indurated. West of the Koel, on the same line of strike, 
ru'iis tlie 'lH<ii of the Mahadeva scarp. I Have already stated ihe possi- 
Diiity of the Mahadevas being faulted and a portion of the Barakars 
cut but hei-e. 

In the Mundul river the section exposes a number of thin seams 

Section in Mundul ^^ ^^^ ^^^ catboriac'eoiis shale altierna,ting with 
*'*^^'^' sandstones. These seams are too thin to be 

of value. 

In the stream which runs through Purro, west of the road, there is 

„ ,. . „ . a considerable section of sandstones with some 

oection m Furro river. 

carbonaceous shales, and four seams containine* 
from 6 inches to 1 foot of coal. The coal is of good quahty, but nowhere 
suflSciently thick to be of value. 

The Supahi and its tributaries south of the Doothoo hills afford 
Other sections in Su- several more sections. In the former, before it 
^^ ^' enters the hills, there is a narrow margin of 

Talchirs, above which there are coarse Barakar grits dipping at 25", to 
north-west. Above these there are somewhat conglomeratic grits, which 
resemble certain beds occupying the same relative position in the 
Aurunga field. The next rocks seen are rusty Iklahadeva sandstones 
dipping 15°, to north. It is uncertain whether they are superposed or 
are separated by a fault. 

In the Ledkee stream, which joins the Supahi near its entrance to 

Section in Ledkee ^^ ^^i^ls, there are rocks resembling the highest 

beds seen in the Atee at Bijka, and with them 

some others whose lithological affinities are certainly not with ordinary 

Barakars. Besides the green beds, there are grits which include 

angular fragments of gneiss, &c., and also firiecalcai^eous sandstones. 

Any attempt to separate these rocks as constituting a distinct 

Difficuty in separating group is beset with difficulties, since there are 

not a few sections in which the Mahadevas 

( 103 ) 

104 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

directly overlie normal Barakars. So that were the former really 
distinct, there would be a good deal of unconformity which would have 
to be explained away. Regarding them as being merely local varieties 
of Barakars would get over the difficulty of their not appearing in some 
sections. A dotted line on the map indicates the limits within which 
these rocks have been observed. 

Still another section of Barakars is afforded by the Supahi where 

Section in Supahi ^^ traverses a small area of those rocks which are 

river a mda. ^^^ ^q -^^ ^ £^^l^ ^^ ^^^ extreme west end of the 

field. The following is the measured section in the Supahi at Binda 
from north to south, descending, dip 10°, to north : — 

Gneiss faulted. 

1. Interval . . .33' "| f 5' 9" 

2. Grits, part concealed, 28' ).atlO°= . . -^ 4' 9" 

3. Seam {vide assay) 25' J L 4' 4" 

4. Sandstone 4' 0" 

6. Seam — 

Shale . . 0'4" 

Coal . . V 0" 1' 4" 

6. Sandstone B' C/' 

7. Seam, very indistinct 2' Of' 

8. Sandstone, part concealed, 50' at 12° = . . . 10' 5" 

9. Seam {vide assay), 53' at 15° = 13' 8" 

10. Pelspathic grit, 50' at 15°= 12' 10" 

11. Carhonaceous shale, passing into grey sandstones and 

grits, 33' at 10° = 5' 9" 

12. Thin sandstones, with some thin coaly layers, 

200' at 10° 34' 9" 

13. Interval, 100' at 10° = . . . , . . 17' 6" 

14. Grits = 12' 0^ 

Fine-grained yellow sandstones —Talchirs. 

It will be seen, on reference to the table of assays, that seams 

Nos. 3 and 9 contain coal of very good quality. On the other hand, 

a reference to the map will shew that, owing to the fault having brought 

up the gneiss so close to the outcrop, the quantity is very limited 

( 104 ) 


indeed. Perhaps this is the less to be regretted, since the locality is too 
difficult of access ever to be of much importance. 

Section 3.— Mahadeva Series. 
Rocks of this series, though largely developed west of the Koel, are 
Hot now represented by any deposits in those parts of the Hutar field 
which lie to the east of that river. Their general aspect, throughout 
the elevated tract which extends from the west bank of the Koel, 
where they rest upon a great thickness of Barakars, to the end of the 
field, where they are cut off by a fault, corresponds closely with the 
appearance of rocks of the same age in the Karanpura fields. The 
lithological characters, too, are identical. 

Owing to the difference in the thickness of the sections of the 
Barakars which are found on the north and south, it is possible that 

Possible unconform- ^^^ Mahadevas may have been let down by a fault, 
^*y* a portion of the Barakars having been cut out. 

This appearance may, however, be attributable either to original 
irregularity of deposit of the Barakars, or to unconformable superposi- 
tion, the existence of which is rendered probable by the non-representa- 
tion of the Raniganj and Panchet groups in this area. 

The most complete section of these rocks is afforded by the Supahi, 

Section in SupaH ^^^^^ traverses a deeply cut gorge through the 
"''^''' mass of hills north of Purro. At the mouth of 

the gorge the rusty-looking grits and sandstones dip 15°, to north. At 
about the centre of the gorge the beds flatten, and the water runs between 
steep walls, 30 feet high, in which the rugged and honey-combed edo-es 
of the beds are exposed. Pot-holes abound, and contribute not a little 
to produce a striking effect. This is especially the case at the waterfall 
which is fed by the Hulka stream on the west. 

The scene is one of peculiar beauty, not that there is, in the dry 

Scenery. ^®^^°° ^^ ^^^^^' ^ *^°P^°"^ ^^^^^ ^"^^ because the 

water trickles into vast pot-holes, and flows over 

the edges of these natural basins, the innermost recesses of which can be 

( 105 ) 

106 ball: geology of atjeunga and hutar coal fields. 

viewed through the pellucid waters. In the well -shaded Hulka valley 
the grotesque forms of the eroded sandstones and thfe brilliant 
hues of the vegetation, which includes ferns, a small Arum, Brosera, 
grasses, mosses, &c., combine to make up a scene which is most 
refreshing in March or April after the black, scorched, and dusty 
jungles outside. 

Towards the northern end of the gorge the beds are tilted again, 
dipping west of south at an angle of 8°. 

In the ;6ijka hill (2,479 feet) these rocks attain their maximum 
development, though it is difficult to estimate the 

Bijka hill. _ • p ,\ r -H • ' 

thickness exactly. The summit oi the mii is 
about 1,300 feet above the village. The inclination of the beds is from 
one point of view only 5°. The northern face of the hill is backed by a 
strong ridge of fault rock, which marks the position of the main bound- 
ary fault. In part, then, the elevation may be due to tilted Barakars at 
the base, but I think it probable that the thickness of Mahadevas cannot 
be far short of 1,000 feet. 

Towards the top the sandstones present a somewhat vitreous 

appearance, being not unlike some forms of Vindhyan rocks. Beyond 

the Bijka hill the older groups are cut out completely, faulted junctions 

between the edges of the gneiss and the Mahadevas being exposed on 

the slopes. Before the Siipahi is reached, a cross- 

CrOSS-fault. -,••■, n ^ ' Ti • 111 

fault limits the further extension, it is probable 
that a much thinned out deposit of Barakars has been here cut off. 
That the Barakars were dying out here is evidenced by the fact that 
only two miles further west the Mahadevas, at a level perhaps 300 feet 
higher, rest directly on the gneiss. A small patch of Talchir boulder 
beds at the foot of the scarp, and the Barakar and Talchir beds at Biiada, 
are the sole remnants of the lower groups which are left to indicate 
former extension. 

The outlier which in the Sitwa hill rests on a base of gneiss 
spreads westwards through the level country near Budhunya. The 
( 106 ) 

iiUTAR field: mahadeva series. 107 

southern and western boundaries appear to be continuations of the Bijka 

and Binda faults, which would intersect one an- 
Sitwaliill outlier. 

other near Kajuri. 

I have on the map indicated the probability of the Bijka fault 
being continued to Tatapani, but am as yet by no means certain that it 
is so. 

The lithological characters of the rocks forming this outlier are 
normal, i. e., identical with those of the adjoining main area. 

( 107 ) 



Section 1. — Coal. 

In the accompanying table I have given the results of my assays 

of the specimens of coal vs-hich I collected in the three fields. 

These results are completely confirmatory of the opinions which I 

., „ formed in the field as to the relative merits 
Comparative merits or 

the coal. Qf the seams. The coal of Daltonganj has the 

advantage of having been opened up, but I doubt if this is sufiicient 
to account for the difierence in the percentages between it and the 
Aurunga coal, and this is the more probable, since the Hutar coal has 
yielded such good results. 

The Daltonganj Field. 

No doubt whatever exists as to the excellent quality of the coal 
in this field. It has been proved, both by assays and actual experi- 
ments, to have great heating power, and to be admirably adapted to 
steam purposes. 

Mr. Hughes' estimate of 11,600,000 tons as the amount of available 
coal is, as far as I have had opportunities of forming an opinion, a safe 
minimum. Although there is good reason for believing that the coal 
of this area, as in the Aurunga field, occurs in basins of limited extent, 
that is to say, that it is not of equal extent with the coal-measures, 
still there is a fair probability that there may be basins of coal in the 
portion of the field to the south-east where the rocks are much con- 
cealed by superficial deposits. This can only be ascertained by sys- 
tematically conducted borings. The Singra seams too, which are not 
included in Mr. Hughes' estimate, contain coal of so good a quality that 
it might very probably be worked profitably by open quarries for some 
years.^ In any case, the 11,600,000 tons would last for 50 years, at the 

'■ The Singra coal was being used for lime=hurning at the time of my visit. 

( 108 ) 


rate of 200^000 tons per annum, which is the amount that the projected 
line and canal would be capable of carrying, according to Colonel Haig. 

The average composition of the four specimens, which were in each case 
taken from the coal actually stacked for consumption, amounts to— 

Moisture 3-45, volatile 21-05, carbon 64-8, ash 10-7. 
The Aurunga Field. 

The coal which occurs in the rocks of the Raniganj group is of 
too unimportant a character, whether as regards quality or thickness to 
be considered as aflFecting the question of the amount economically avail- 
able in this area. 

The improbability of this field containing a large supply of really 
Coal inferior in quali- good coal is very great. The appearance of the 
*y' seams, and the result of the assays, both point to 

this conclusion. At the same time, it should be remembered that there 
is not a single fresh and clear section of the rocks, and that the coal 
has never been quarried to the smallest extent. Of coals with an 
average composition similar to that given in the accompanying tables, 
I think the following quantities would be available : — 


Eajbar seams 12,000,000 

Toobed „ 3,000,000 

Jugguldugga , 5,000,000 

ToTAi, . . 20,000,000 

It is unnecessary to include here any of the other localities, where I 
Minor localities not ^^^e indicated the presence of coal in the pre- 
mcluded. ^ious pages, and on the map. It is possible that 

borings may prove the seam in the outlier at Dudhoria, or those on the 
south of the field in the Gowa section, to have some value. But dealing 
only with the facts which are available, they must be omitted from 
consideration at present. The obviously bad quality, or limited extent 
of other seams, as at Hoochloo and north of Manjar, have been alluded 
to ; and these also are therefore not included. 

( 109 ) 

110 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal melds. 

Unless very much better qualities of coal exist in the Aurunga field than 
Coal not suitable for ^he very best seen by me, it is manifestly impossi- 
iron smelting. i^jg ^jj^t iron can be manufactured on the spot. 

Hutar Field. 
I have already pointed out that the coal-measure rocks of this area 

^.,, , . , 1, i present manv striking; differences from those of 
Litnological characters ^ j o 

peculiar. ^j^g Aurunga field. To this rule the coal is no 

exception, as will at once be apparent by a comparison of the average 

assays in the accompanying table. From the Daltonganj coal that of 

^ , , -xi Hutar differs in containing a notably smaller pro- 

Coal compared with o ./ r 

tbat of Daltonganj. portion (7*15 per cent.) of fixed carbon, and wouldj 

therefore, have a less heating power. The proportion of ash, 10-7 per 
cent., is the same in both. On the whole, however, the Hutar coal is 
quite equal to the average of Indian coals, so far as regards quality. 
Much uncertainty must attach to any estimate of quantity. Only 
three seams of good quality, containing a thickness which could be 
worked with profit, are known to exist; these are as follows : — 

Dauritiver section,, south-east of Hurilong . . 8' 0" seam. 

Hurtat river, at Toleh 8' 0" „ 

SupaM river, at Biada 13' 8" „ 

It is possible that the Dauri river and Hurtah river coals may be 

,, , ^ ., ... £ continuous right across, but since there is no in- 
No defimte estimate of a ^ 

quantity possible. tervening section exposed in the Koel, or elsewhere, 

it would be most dangerous to base any calculation on the mere sup- 
position. In fact, the lateral extension of both these seams being quite 
unknown, it would be utterly futile to attempt any estimate of the 
number of millions of tons they may contain. 

That the 13' 3" seam at Binda on the Supahi contains but a very small 
quantity of coal is as certain as anything can be, the fault along which 
the gneiss has been thrust up occurring within a few feet of the outcrop. 

I do not at all despair of this field being found to contain workable 
seams of value, hut the facts at present available do not justify any con- 
fident expression of opinion that such will certainly prove to be the case. 
( 110 ) 




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( IH ) 


ball: geology of AURUNGA A^^D HUTAU COAL FIELDS. 

Section 2. — Iron. 
The iron ores fotrnd in Palamow admit of a triple classification, 
founded both on their mode of origin, their geological position, and on 
their chemical composition. So arranged they stand as follows :— 

Magnetite . 

a. Pure maffnetic ore 

posed and altered. 

\ These occur\ 

I either in bands 

• I and lodes in 

7 Til 1 J )lioi'nblendic )^ „ „„!, • 

h. More or less decom- / ^morpnic 

rocks, or as de- 
tached crystals 
in granite veins./ 

and meta- 


Siderite and hsematite 


a. Carbonate or black 


b. Limonite or brown- 

ish haematite. 

c. Eed haematite . 




tion a r y 

ma sses 
in sand- 

Coal mea- 
sures, Bara- 
kar group. 

Bed and brown hsematite 

Bands of one or other 
of these ores occur in the 
laterite which cap the pla- 
teaux above 3,000 feet in 
, elevation. 



From time to time specimens of pure or nearly pure magnetic ore 
have been picked up by district officers and travellers, or brought in by 
natives to Dehree and elsewhere from the Palamow sub-division. Such 
specimens have, on being assayed, naturally yielded most favourable 
results. Occasionally the localities whence these ores have been brought 
have been described, on native or other irresponsible testimony, as contain- 
ing inexhaustible supplies of similar ore. But what has perhaps more 
than anything else tended to give rise to misconception has been the fact 
( 112 ) 


that descriptions of ores of quite distinct character* have been coupled 
with the assays of the magnetite, and thus conclusions have been drawn by 
combining the abundance of the former with the richness of the latter, 
which are not warranted by the real facts of the case. 

That within the limits of the sub-division, inexhaustible deposits of 
magnetite may exist is quite possible. I know of places in the south- 
east of the Manbhoom District'' where such is the case ; and many of the 
chief deposits of magnetite throughout India occur in rocks of the same 
geological age as those which form the greater part of Palamow. 

My observations were limited to mere superficial examination of the 
ground, there being no time for opening up trenches. I believe, however, 
that I have seen all the principal sources of iron within the tract under 
review, and am compelled to regard it as being most improbable that 
any considerable deposit exists clearly exposed. Any very remark- 
able deposit other than those about to be described would almost 
certainly have been brought to notice by the natives. There is ample 
consolation, however, afforded by the fact that, although the ores which 
have been mainly instrumental in attracting attention to Palamow are 
not of great promise themselves, there are others whose quality and abun- 
dance are of a most satisfactory nature. Before describing these latter, 
it will be necessary to give a detailed account of observations made on 
the several deposits of magnetite which have been visited. The follow- 
ing is a list of the villages in whose vicinity these deposits respectively 
occur :— 

Eajhara'^ . . TuppeH"' Ban. 

Lunkha . . „ „ 

Kopeh, (south-west). „ „ 

„ (south-east) . „ 5> 

Satbarwah . . „ „ 

» e. g., the laterite of Neturhat. 
^ These are in the sub-metamorphic rocks. 

' This is quite a distinct locality from Rajhara in the Daltonganj field. It is situated 
east of the Mylee river, and northwards from Satbarwah, 

'' Tuppeh is a local term corresponding, I believe, to parganah. 

H ( 113 ) 





Monodag . 


Hirtun orHarhunj . 






Morwaie . 




Majhara. — I visited this locality in company -with Mr. L. R. Forbes, 
Assistant Commissioner, who had previously been there, and had 
brought from thence some specimens of very pure magnetite. In 
a stream about frds of a mile north-west of the village, for a distance 
of about 50 yards, flat, but weathered fragments of magnetite 
occur rather abundantly scattered through the gravel. In the bank 
of the stream there is an imperfect section of the rocks, which consist 
of hornblendic and granitic gneisses with granite and quartz veins. 
The strike of these beds is irregular, but the prevailing direction is from 
west-north-west to east-south-east, and the dip vertical. We failed 
to find any sign of the ore in situ, though it appeared to occur in 
60 limited a section of the stream bed. The legitimate conclusion 
seemed to be that the fragments were the sole remnant of a nest or band 
of ore which had been eroded from its environment of hornblendic gneiss. 

Leaving the stream and crossing some raviney broken ground westwards 
towards a small hill of hornblendic gneiss, similar fragments were found 
here and there at various levels through the detrital soil, from the beds 
of the ravines up to the top of the lower detrital slope of the hill, but 
there were neither fragments nor ore in situ discernible on the hill itself. 

I am, under the circumstances, inclined to believe that these frag- 
ments now exposed in the channels are proximately derived from the re- 
assortment of old detritus and not directly from any exposed vein or layer.* 
The toughness and power of resisting disintegration, together with the 
high specific gravity, would sufficiently account for the survival of the 

* Magnetite occurs sometimes in nests or veins, sometimes in apparent beds which 
underlie with the metamorphic rocks. 

( 114 ) 


fragments of ore long after the other materials had been washed away j 
these fragments might conceivably be a remnant left after the erosion of 
many hundreds of feet of rock. 

From the tabular character of most of the fragments, whichi are rarely 
more than two inches thick and more commonly only one and-a-half, it 
seems probable that the layer was a thin one ; and it is further probable 
from the dips of the rocks and of the veins of quartz and granite that its 
underlie was steep. 

However promising this spread of fragments along a line of strike 
may appear to casual observation, it is, under the circumstances, not such 
as to justify a belief in the existence of an inexhaustible supply, though 
such may exist hidden away under the surface. 

Lunkha. — In a small ridge north of the village of Lunkha there is a 
considerable abundance of fragments of magnetite. One irregular block 
measured upwards of half a cubic foot in content. 

There being no higher ground in the immediate vicinity, these frag- 
ments must necessarily mark the position of the original outcrop, which 
extends at least as far westwards as the Semah road, but I did not see any 
sign of its being exposed in the section in the bed of the Aurunga. This 
ore is very pure magnetite. Should occasion arise, it would not be a very 
arduous undertaking to sink a few trenches at right angles to the strike. 
These could not fail to find the veiuj if any of it remains to be mined. 

Kopeh, soutJi-toest. — One mile to the south-west of Kopeh, I found, 
in the ravines, a large rounded fragment of magnetite about the size of a 
man^s head, which had probably been derived from a nest in the horn- 
blendic rocks occurring in that neighbourhood. None was found in situ. 

Kopeh, south-east. — The iron- workers at Kopeh, though living close to 
the Lunkha ore, do not make any use of it, and when I shewed them a very 
fine specimen of magnetite, said that it would not answer for their purposes. 

The ore they do use consists of small semi-deeomposed-crystals of 
magnetite derived from disintegrated granite veins, and laboriously 

( 115 ) 

116 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

sifted from the sand accumulated in ravines near the Ledee stream 
south of the Aurunga. This ore has to be ground between stones to a 
fine powder before being smelted ; hence, perhaps, the name hali, (sand). 

Satbarwah. — To the south-west of Satbarwah, near Rubdab, on the 
slope of a small hill, there are traces of ore. These are mostly of de- 
composed and altered magnetite. Although a road crossing the hill 
gives a complete section of the hornblendic gneisses and granite of which 
it is formed, I could find no nest or bed of ore. This ore is not used 
at present, there being no Aguriahs in the vicinity. 

Hosir. — The ore used at Hosir seemed to be similar in character and 
origin to that south-east of Kopeh. I did not, however, visit the locality 
whence it was brought. The iron-smelters at Gowa employ, I believe, 
the same ore. 

Monodag. — In the stream south-west of Monodag, which is to the north 
north-east of Mooroop, there are some bands of magnetite seen in the 
gneiss. These are not of sufficient thickness to be of much importance. 

Hirhun or Hurhunj. — In a stream near this village, when marching 
up to the Daltonganj field with Mr. Bauerman in 1873, we found a 
few small fragments of magnetite. There was no evidence of the 
existence of a large deposit. 

KuraU. — This locality is situated in the centre of the extensive group 
of hills south of Cheinpur, being about four miles south of Chandoo. 
The ore is used by the smelters of Chorhut. 

Whether there are other localities besides the one I was taken to 
I cannot say, but all that the people knew of was a shallow hole in 
the middle of a standing crop of rahar dhal, and which penetrated 
into an amorphous mass of decomposed ore. A large fragment of 
undecomposed ore had been thrown on one side, as being apparently 
tmsuited for the smelter^s purpose. In the cleared spaces on either side 
of the field, where the rocks were partly exposed, I could find no 
traces of the extension of the deposit, which is, therefore, probably a 
mere nest in the hornblendic gneiss and of limited extent. 
( 116 ) 


Adur.'—MY. D. Smith describes some ore which he examined 
about two miles north of Ghorhut in the vicinity of Adur, in the 
following- words : it is ''a very partial deposit of magnetic ore of the very 
richest quality, but so limited in quantity as to be of no importance." 

Morwaie.— On the faulted boundary of the Hutar coal-field south of 
Morwaie there is, in conjunction with some fault rock, an outcrop of 
magnetite much altered and decomposed, principally into red bgematite. 
It is imperfectly exposed, and I cannot speak definitely as to quantity ; 
but I failed to meet with it again in any of the cross-sections of the 
line of faulted contact. 

Kotam.—'Neav the junction of the Kaliburna river with the Koel and 
also close to Kotam, small fragments of magnetite, some superficially 
altered to brown and some to red haematite, are found scattered about 
with fragments of vein quartz. Save at Chipars, there are, I believe, no 
smelters in the Semah valley at present. Several families of Aguriahs 
have had to give up their trade owing to forest conservancy having put 
a stop to the manufacture of charcoal. 

From the foregoing it will be seen, with reference to the commer- 
cial aspect of the question, that two conditions, which are of primary 
importance, Isf, the existence of an abundance of ore— a practically 
inexhaustible supply— and 2nd, the possibility of working such an ore 
by a simple system of mining, are not distinctly afforded by any of 
the abovenamed deposits; and, in the absence of such evidence, it 
will perhaps be, in the long run, more profitable to direct attention 
rather to those ores which, though less rich, are abundant and can be 
raised without any diflB.culty whatever. 

The magnetites, if found near the line of transport, would always be 
of value for ' fettling ' and, so far as the supply would go, for mixing with 
the less rich ores. 

Carbonates and carbonates altered into Immatites. 
This heading has been adopted, as it is most probable that, notwith- 
standing the present rareness of carbonates, most, if not all, of the 

( 117 ) 

118 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

ores* about to be described originally existed as such. At present we 
fiud tbat the ores commonly associated with coal-measures consist of 
brown or red haematites, or mixtures of both. 

According to Mr. Hughes ' report on the Daltonganj field, it would 
seem that within its limits there are no deposits of iron ore of import- 
ance. In certain parts of the Daltonganj field shaly and concretionary 
fragments of ore may be seen strewing the surface. And from the 
traces of slags it is apparent that iron has been manufactured from these 
ores. Such accumulations are, however, quite consistent with a great 
poverty of the deposit; and all experience shews that much reliance 
should not be placed on such apparent evidence of abundance. 

In the Hutar field, as has been already indicated in the account 
of the coal-measures of that area, there are numerous deposits of iron- 
stones, but since it is believed that none of these deposits are sufficiently 
extensive to justify the hope that the establishment there of iron works 
would have a favourable result, it will be unnecessary in this Economic 
account to recapitulate the details regarding that area. 

In the Aurunga field and its neighbourhood, however, there is an 
undoubted abundance of good ore which is most favourably situated as 
regards hmestone flux, if not as regards fuel. 

Aurunga field. — Since from the inferior quality of the coal it is not 
likely that the iron ores would ever be smelted on the spot, the Rajbar 
ores are less conveniently situated than those which are found in the outlier 
near Chiru. The latter, as has been shewn, are sufficiently abundant to 
meet all possible requirements, and their quality is shewn in the assays 
given in the accompanying table. A very important point regarding these 
ores too is, that since they occur near the surface and could be easily 
worked, no expensive mining establishment need be maintained. The 
same remark applies to the limestone. This would not be the case with 
the mao-netite ores, supposing them even to be vastly more abundant 

" Possibly some of the concreliouary masses were never carbouates. 

( lis ) 


than they appear to be. There remains only to be discussed the means 
of conveyance of these ores to the fuel. 

The question of the expediency of constructing a line of railway to 
connect the canals with the Palamow coal-fields being under considera- 
tion and report by the Public Works Department^ it is unnecessary for 
me to do more than add a few lines on the subject, and this the more 
particularly, as I have no personal knowledge of the comparative merits 
of the different routes which have been proposed. 

From what has gone before, it will be apparent that, in so far as 
I have examined the country, I am committed to the opinion that the 
only localities where there are iron ores and limestone suitable in all 
respects for iron manufacture are situated in the Aurunga field and its 
outlier ; and that the coal which is most likely to be suitable for smelt- 
ing these ores and for steam purposes is that which is found in the 
Daltonganj field. 

The connection of the Daltonganj field with the East Indian line 
is then the most important and primary part of the project, and that 
this should be effected by means of a line from Dehree and thence 
onwards by the canals seems a necessary conclusion. But it has been 
proposed to extend the line from Gya to the coal-field via the Mohur 
valley. Into the discussion of the comparative merits of these schemes 
I am unable to enter, and it only remains for me to point out that if 
iron is to be made, the ores and limestones of the Aurunga field will 
have to be carried to the Daltonganj coal, or vice versa. Probably 
the former would be the less expensive plan, as the coal and iron would 
have to be carried to and fro respectively, while in the former, the ore 
and lime would simply have to be drawn from the Aurunga field and 
smelted at the coal mines. 

Roughly speaking, the distance of the Aurunga field from the Daiton- 

Distance of iron from g^^°j ^oal mines vid the valley of the Amanut 

good coal. would be about 50 miles. The probability of its 

being possible to carry the ore with profit for this distance by a specially 

( 119 ) 

120 ball: geology op aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

constructed line, or by any other means of transport, seems to be some- 
what slender, but I must leave it to others to decide this question. It 
depends upon the alignment adopted for the Gya-Daltonganj line 
whether some reduction would not be possible in the length required 
for the special branch to the ores. 


The position of the excellent ores which are found at an elevation 
of 3,600 feet in the laterite of the Neturhat plateau renders them 
absolutely valueless from an economic point of view. A glance at the 
accompanying general map will be sufficient to shew the nature of 
the physical difficulties in the country surrounding the Tuppeh Semah 
in which the Neturhat plateau is situated. 

Much simplification of the questions at issue will ensue by omitting 
all such localities from consideration. 

I shall conclude this section by giving a brief sketch of the present 
condition of the native iron works in the area. 

Native Iron works. 

A photograph, for which I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. T. F. 
Peppe, has rendered it possible to give here a more life-like representa- 
tion of the process of smelting, as practised by the Aguriahs, than has 
hitherto been published. In the lithographic reproduction of this 
photograph, M. Jules Schaumburg's artistic hand, which has done so 
much for the illustration of these volumes, will be recognized. 

Although the direct process by which malleable iron is produced in 
native furnaces has often been described, and now finds a place in works 
on metallurgy, I venture to think that a few remarks on the subject, 
the result of my own observations, will not be inappropriate here. 
I have already, on a previous page, discussed the ethnology of the 
various tribes connected with the manufacture and working of 

( 120 ) 

**, ■ ''■. 



'XTM^f^ _, ^ijSs^ ^ 







'I c 


'* ■% ' ' «^fc!- J:^^ ^i '-^^_^^ 



The furnaces of the Aguriahs are g-enerally erected under some old 

tamarind or other shady tree on the outskirts of 
Dimensions of furnaces, i i i • 

a Village, or under sheds in a hamlet where only 

Aguriahs dwell, and which is situated in convenient proximity to the 

ore or to the jungle where the charcoal is prepared. The furnaces 

are built of mud, and are about three feet high, tapering from below 

upwards, from a diameter of rather more than two feet at base to 

eighteen inches at top, with an internal diameter of about six inches, 

the hearth being somewhat wider. Supposing the Aguriah and his 

family to have collected the charcoal and ore, the latter has to be prepared 

before being placed in the furnace. 

Three varieties of ore are recognized, viz. :-— 
Bali = Magnetite. 
£iji = Haematites from coal-measures. 
Dherkur = Haematites from laterite. 

Sali is first broken up into small fragments by pounding, and is 
then reduced to a fine powder between a pair of millstones. The 
haematites {Biji and Dherhur) it is not usual to subject to any other 
preliminary treatment besides pounding. 

A bed of charcoal having been placed in the hearth, the furnace is 

_, . . filled with charcoal and then fired. The blast is 

Blowing m. 

' produced by the usual pair of kettledrum-like 
bellows, which are worked by the feet as in the accompanying illustration, 
the heels of the operator acting as stoppers to the valves. The blast 
is conveyed to the furnace by a pair of bamboo twyeres, and has to be 
kept up steadily without intermission for from 6 to 8 hours. From 
time to time ore and fuel are sprinkled on the top of the fire, the 
proportions used not being measured, but probably the operators are 
guided by experience as to the quantities of each which produce the best 
results. From time to time the slag is tapped off by a hole pierced 
a few inches from the top of the hearth. Ten minutes before the con- 
clusion of the process, the bellows are worked with extra vigour and the 
supply of ore and fuel from above is stopped. The clay luting of 

( 121 ) 

122 ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 

the hearth is then broken down, and the ball, or giri, consisting of semi- 

_, . molten iron, slag and charcoal, is taken out and 

Blowing out. 

immediately hammered, by which a considerable 

proportion of the included slag which is still in a state of fusion is 

squeezed out. 

In some cases the Agnriahs continue the further process, until after 

various reheatings in open furnaces and hammer- 

ing, they produce clean iron fit for market ; or even 

at times they work it up themselves into suitable utensils. Not un- 

frequently, however, the Aguriahs' work ceases with the production 

of the giri, which passes into the hands of the Lobars. Four annas is a 

common price paid for an ordinary sized giri^ and 
Price of crude iron. 

as but two of these can be made in a- very hard 
day^s work of 15 hours' duration, and a considerable time has also to be 
spent on the preparation of ore and charcoal, the profits are small. The 
fact is, that although the actual price which the iron fetches in the 
market is high, the profits made by the mahajans, and the immense dis- 
proportion between the time and labour expended and the outturn, both 
combine to leave the unfortunate Aguriah in a miserable state of 

The price varies with the quality of the finished iron. But the 

average prices at which the merchants of Seraidih 
Prices of refined iron. -, r-^^ ■ • i 

and Chempur respectively purchase are 5 and 6 

pasiri (36 cutcha seers), say 50 lbs., per rupee. 

In the Karanpura field I was told that the price was Ks. 9 a 
tangi = 4 cutcha maunds, that would be about E,s. 3 per pucka maund, 
a much higher figure.'^ 

» At Nowatand, in the Karanpura field, the prices of giris by weight were — 

3 cutcha maunds f or . . . . . . 1 in advance. 

2 to 2| „ „ „ 1 on delivery. 

* Owing to conflicting, and often deliberately untruthful statements, and the varying 
values of weights and measures, it is difficult to obtain perfectly reliable statistics on these 

( 122 ) 



At Dehiee I believe the merchant receives Rs. 9 for a pucka maund. 
This is a very high price indeed = Rs. 252 per ton. 

It remains only to give a list of the localities where iron is now 
manufactured — at present in Palamow and Toree, so far as I have been 
able to ascertain.* 

Palamow — 



Number ()f furnaces. 


. Bari 








Hurilong . 

• Durjag 


Morwaie . 



Hetlee . 

• jj 





Aror . . ■ . 



Korom Toleh . 



Titaro or Toleh. 



Binda . . , . 



Chorhut . 



Neturhat . . . . 


2 seen ; others reported. 

Chiparo . 



Khugoii . . . . 



Toree — 

Olerpat . 






Eajbar*" . 


Be j rah 


Kurmahi . 


Ghootam . 


Nuwada . 


A list supplied to me from Daltonganj proved so inaccurate that I only give the 
names of places where I have actually seen furnaces. 

^ This is the only furnace excavated in a bank of clay which I have seen in this 

( 123 ) 


ball: geology of aurunga and hutar coal fields. 




n o 
is a 

£^ S 

•S 6c „• 
I. 3 '3 

rt § ° 

'^ *- ro 

s g 

°j3 "^ 

o sd. 

3et-. 03 

I- ^^ l""^ 

:§« s 




i3 S( 


j5 Sops 

P o » 


. c5 


X3 a 

g C c3 
° & o ^ °^ & 

OS 3 ^ 
a 5h o » 



Ig g o o o 


(M CO CO t^ -^ CO U3 00 «3 

05 id CDCCOSOijoiLn'S 
■>j( -^ 10 CO CO 10 ■* •* ■* 

xad 09 n^q^j ssa;[ :)0^ 


3 p- 






— =8 









of Myle 



ll • • -^ • 

CO -^ »0 O IN 00 OS 

( 124 

5 5 5 |S5 S .S3»i 

S S o c?Sa> o o-ec 

5 5 <g «kIW a KmM 

lO <» t>. 00 CS O r-4 eiOQxjJ 

r-l rl il rlt-l W C^ (N Cq M 

economic resources : limestone. 125 

Section 3. — Limestones. 

Little remains to be added to what has been said of the limestones 
when describing the crystalline rocks. So far as quantity and quality 
go, the limestones on the west of the Aurunga field are eminently 
suitable for use as a flux for the iron ores. I fully expect that they 
will be found traceable from the position I have indicated north-eastwards 
in the direction of the village of Echak. This would bring them into 
nearer proximity with the iron ores of the outlier {vide map) . 

The other calcareous deposits alluded to in the course of the 
preceding pages will probably not prove to be of economic value. But 
the crystalline limestone near Sattarwah may contain better portions 
than that from which the sample was taken. 

Section 4. — Lead and Copper. 

The only lead ore I have seen from this part of the country 
consisted of weathered fragments of galena, which were picked up 
on the surface not far from Bankhap three miles north of Balumath. 
When passing that way I did not know of the occurrence, and had 
no subsequent opportunity of visiting the locality. I received the 
samples from the Sub-Inspector of Police at Balumath. At Hesatu, 
about 14 miles to the north-east of Bankhap and within the limits of 
the Hazaribagh district, galena was many years ago reported to occur. 
I visited the locality, but found that a series of excavations had been 
made which had destroyed all trace of the outcrop, so that there was no 
opportunity of forming any opinion as to its character. 

Some traces of copper were found by Mr. Forbes in a well sunk in 
the station of Daltonganj. A notice of the fact will be found in Mr. 
Forbes^ Settlement Report. A few traces of the copper carbonates were 
to be seen in the heaps of stone near the well at the time of my visit. 

( 125 ) 



Althougli but little is known regarding the field upon whieL. the 
above name has been conferred, there is no doubt that it covers a wide 
extent of country, and is not improbably in direct connection with the 
tracts of coal-measure and younger formations which are known to 
exist on the borders of Mirzapore and Rewah, and in Chung-Bookhar, 
Koria and other parts of Sirguja. Should this surmise prove to be 
correct, there would be an area within the limits of the northern districts 
of Sirguja alone of, probably, 2,000 square miles of Gondwana rocks. 

The first and only published allusion to this field that I know of 
is to be found in the account of Captain Franklin^s remarks on the 
Palamow coal-field.'' "On the 5th of May," (1830) we are told, 
'^Captain Franklin reported his discovery of coal at a place called 
Chergurh in the district of Sirguja.''^ 

" This coal was of superior quality, being much more bituminous than 
the Singrah coal, but being situated in a mountainous and jungly 
country, and the navigability of the Kunhur river being doubtful, the 
prospect of the discovery proving useful was slender." This discovery 
was alluded to by Dr. McClelland in the Coal Committee's report.'' 

From the mention of the Kunhur as afibrding a possible means of 
transport for this coal, I am inclined to believe that Captain Franklin's 
Manpur should be identified with a place of that name which is marked 
on the Atlas sheet, 14 miles west of Tatapani ; but it may perhaps be 
a wholly different locality, since it is spoken of in the Coal Committee's 
report as being 8 or 10 miles west of the Ramgurh hill in Lukanpur 
which is about the position of the Gej river, a tributary of the Husdoo 
where there is reason to believe coal-measures do occur. 

» Gleanings in Science, vol. ii, p. 218. *> Calcutta, 1838, p. 69. 

( 126 ) 


The position of Chergurh would settle the point, but so far I have 
been unable to find that place on the maps. 

In the year 1866 Mr. Medlicott visited the eastern end of this 
field near the hot springs, and noted the presence of both Barakars 
and upper Panchets (Mahadevas)j as is indicated on his manuscript 
route map. 

After I had completed the examination of the area occupied by the 
Aurunga and Hutar coal-fields but little time remained for carrying on 
examination on the western side of the Kunhur ; however, I was enabled 
to pay a flying visit to Tatapani. On a previous page I have given an 
account of my observations on the hot springs. 

Besides the Barakars and Mahadevas I found a narrow margin of 
Talchirs on the east of the field, I saw no coal seams of value in the 
neighbourhood of Tatapani, nor did the people I interrogated seem to 
know of the existence of any. 

( 127 ) 

Govcrnmenl, Central Prebs.— No. 6 S. G. S.— 31-8-78.— 500. 










VOL, XV, Pt. 2. 












Physical features 1 

Crystalline area ............ 3 

Old gneiss ............ 3 

Crystalline schists , .......... 4 

Granitic rocks 7 

The suh-metamorphic rocks 10 

The Gondwana series 12 

Talchirs (Loiver Gondwana) ^. ... 14 

BaraJcars „ 16 

Raniganj „ ......... 17 

PancJiets „ ......... 18 

Mahadevas (Upper Gondwana) ...... . . 19 

Trap 23 

Recent deposits ... 26 


L— The easteen basin (Tatapani, Gidhi, &c.,) belonging to the 


A. — TatapIni and Sendite eivee sections 27 

1. — Section along the 7iullah north of Bithiau ..... 28 

2.— „ „ „ south of Agar-t ..... 30 
3. — „ in the nullahs hetioeen Chechra and No. 326 S. T. north of 

Mitgain .......... 32 

B.— Banki eivee sections • ... 34 

4. — Section along the nullah east of Gidhi and in the Banki river to 

Panri .......... 34 

5,^~ Section along tJie nullahs left and right of Banki river west of 

Chumra .,..,..,., 36 



Q.— Section along the nullah north of Meguli . 

7_ J ,, „ nullahs between Bagra and Lawa . 

8. — „ in the Sita Chua nullah .... 
9^ ^ in the nullahs between Gargori and Nowadih 



II. The westeen basiks, belonging to the Eee eivee system. 

A. — Ieia eivee sections. 

10. — Segai nullah 

11. — Sections in the Ledho nullah north of Karamdiha . 

12. — „ between Karamdiha and No. 506 H. T., including the lotver 

Ledho, Charhi and Kundhepi nullahs . 
13^ jj along the Balsotha nullah and adjoining area westivards 





14_ — Section in the Mo7me nullah between Kandia and Hadrai 

15. — Sections of the Lundra Jiills 







in the Stihnai nullah ..... 

alonp the nullah north-west of RanJca Khar 
in the JBudatand nullah .... 

south of Manpur ...... 

in the Morne near Parasdiha 

in the Suidad, Ktcbia and Andherua nullahs and the ad- 
joining country ......... 59 


C Mahan eivee sections, between THE Tamoe scaep and the 




Map to face 'page 1 

Fig. 1. Mahadeva escarpment of the Tamorliill, valley of the Mahan 

river . . ......... 20 

„ 2. Trap-dyke, filling up joints in Mahadeva sandstones, in the 

Dhursot nullah 25 

Erosion in Barakar sandstone of Suidad nullah ... 60 
PI. I, fig. 1. Profile of the metamorphic series between the Chunderpur 

Pats and Tatapani. 
Profile of the metamorphic series of Assandiah. 
Pot-holes in Talchir sandstone, north of Mitgain. 
Talchir boulder-bed and shales, south-west of Kandia. 
Section between Mahadeva escarpment, west of Agar-t and the 

metamorphic rocks, east of Pathalpedi. 
Section in nullahs between Chechra and No. 326 H. T. 
Section in the nullah east of Gidhi and along the Banki 

nullah to Panri. 
IV, „ 1. Section along the nullahs left and right of the Banki river 

west of Chumra. 
Section between Gargori and Nowadih. 
Section between Kandia and the Morne nullah. 
Section between Pipra hill and Kothi village. 
Section through the Mahadevas between Turpa and Khond. 
Section between the Tamor plateau and the Mahan valley. 
Mahadeva escarpment of the Tamor plateau (south of Eam- 

kola), with intrusive sheet of trap. 
Profile of Mahadeva hills as seen from Bara Barthi. 
Mahadeva hills, with trap-dyke, looking northwards from 






I, „ 


II, „ 


II, „ 


III, „ 


III. „ 


III, „ 































Memoirs Vol. XV. 

Takea from sheets 89 and 101 of tb } i^tlaa oi India. 

Memoirs Vol. XV, 








PART 1. 



The area examined during- the season 1878-79 is situated between 
latitudes 23° 30' and 23° 55', longitudes 82= 50' and 84°, comprising the 
north-eastern parganas of the Sirguja state, with some portions of 
South Rewa, and may roughly be defined as being- the area between the 
rivers Kunhur and Rer. Within these limits the coal-field is bounded on 
the south by the great gneissic plateau of Chota Nagpur, the latter rising 
to about 3,000 to 4,000 feet, with steep escarpments facing the north. 
Originally the deposits belonging to the Gondwana series may have 
extended up to that long line of escarpment ; but, the coal-bearing rocks 
having gradually subsided, the surface of the present lower levels has under- 
gone extensive denudation by the Kunhur and Rer river systems, and now 
only patches of Talchirs and sandstones of doubtful age, filling up here 

( 129 ) 
Memoirs of the Geological Sui-vey of India, Vol. XV, Pt. 2. 


and there hollows in the metamorphic rocks^ indicate the former extent 
of those deposits. 

From a distance scarcely to be distinguished from the flat-topped 
gneiss plateaux, are the Mahadeva sandstonchills, so conspicuous towards 
the central west of the coal-field, forming, as they do, vast table mountains 
occupying the centre and composing the main portion of the Gondw^na 
area in the vicinity of the K-er river. 

I have only examined the basin between the rivers Kunhur and Rer, 
where I found the actual coal-measures exposed in patches lying within 
the areas of denudation of four tributaries of these rivers, and, for 
convenience of description, I divide the coal-field therefore into two 
groups, namely — 

I. The eastern basin, belonging to the Kunhur river system, com- 

prising — 

A. The Tntapani and Sendur river sections. 

B. The Banki river sections. 

II. The western basins, belonging to the Rer river system, compris- 


A. The Iria river sections. 

B. „ Morne „ „ 

C. „ Mahan „ „ 

With the exception of a few miles of natural boundaries along the 
eastern and south-western limits of the coal-field, the latter is brought 
alongside of the metamorphic rocks by extensive lines of fault, here and 
there of remarkably straight direction, along which, as is to be expected, 
hot springs occur. The most remarkable ones are situated in the vicinity 
of the Tatapani village near the Kunhur river ; Mr. V. Ball has mentioned 
the occurrence of these springs and gives the temperature of some 
of them.i 

1 Mem. Geol. Surv., Vol. XV, Pt. I, p. 22. 

( 130 ) 


Between Tharni and Lurg-huta (one mile south of Tatapani) I could 

trace evidences of a great fault, which is very well 
Fault. . . 

shown near the junction with the sedimentary 

rocks, where a ridge of fault-rock runs in the line of dislocation. 

The hot spring of Ganduaui is also situated 

Hot spring. 

in this line. 

Crystalline auea. 

Most of the time available had to be devoted to the coal-bearing 

Division of crystalline rocks : it was therefore only possible to examine the 

®^"^^* crystalline rocks of the neighbourhood cursorily ; 

but at least three great groups could be distinguished, namely, the oldest 

gneiss formation, crystalline schists, and granitic rocks. 

The old gneiss formation. 
This is met with in two areas : first, forming the great Chota Nagpur 

Pats and their slopes to the north, and second, the 
Gneiss. r» i i ^ ... 

area north of the coal-field in the vicinity or the 

Rer river. The latter is probably connected under ground with the 

gneiss of the t'ats, merely denuded to a lower level (about \,i 00 feet) 

and in parts covered by younger rocks. 

The usual variety of rocks composing the Pats is a coarse, porphyritic 

gneiss, with bands of hornblendic rocks, here and 

Lithological character. , , . . 

there passing into a hornblendic gneiss traversed 

by numerous veins of pink pegmatite and of epidote. 

The profile of the Pats is characteristic enough, rising more or less 
abruptly into plateaux, and distinguished from the escarpments of the 
Vindhyans or the upper Gondw^nas by more gradual slopes and irregular 
outlines, all covered by dense jungles. 

I may here mention the occurrence of rock-laterite with trap 
Occurrence of laterite ^^ ^ ^^^ VsAiS as akeady described in former 
with trap. Memoirs. 

The gneissic area north of the coal-field on the right bank of the 

( 131 ) 


Rer river is somewhat different in general aspect. Though I believe it to 

belong to the same formation as that which forms 
Gneiss of the Rer river. 

the Pats of the south, this gneiss never rises to any 

great height, being confined to an almost uniform level of about 1,400 feet 

and less, only here and there rising in isolated rocks a few feet above the 

denuded surface of the country — the whole, as indeed the whole of the area 

examined, being covered by tree jungle. In this stretch of gneissic 

rocks we find the picturesque falls of Rokas Kas 
Rokas Kas Falls. 

of the Rer river. The fall is not less than about 

80 to 100 feet, and the water rushes through a series of narrow chasms 

to join in a rock-surrounded pool below, the whole forming by far the 

most striking picture in this part of the country. 

Crystalline schists. 

These form two belts, one south, one north of the coal-field, and are 
certainly distinct from the main gneissic area. 

Descending from the great Chota Nagpur plateau in the direction of 
Tatapani, say via, the Chanderpur road, we traverse at first an undulating 
denuded area still belonging to, and connected with, the gneiss of the Pats. 
Anticlinal folds in ^^^ before reaching the Gondwana basin of Tata- 
schists, pani, we come across one or more anticlinal rolls, 
composed of metamorphic schists, apparently faulted against the gneiss 
and certainly faulted against the Gondwana rocks between TatapSni and 

I have shown the sequence of these rock groups in fig. 1 of Plate I. 
Standing on the slopes skirting the Gobrahill (3,220 feet) south of the 
deserted village of Gugra, we observe gneiss of a porphyritic character 
in situ, traversed by numerous veins of pegmatite. This gneiss forms all 
the lower hills around the base of the Chunderpur Pats, of which the 
plateau on the right (south) of the profile is a continuation (about 
3,500 feet) situated near the village of Chunderpur. It is there capped 
by sheets of trap in common with a large part of the southern gneiss 
plateaux, here and there associated with rock-laterite. 
( 132 ) 


Towards the left (north) of the profile the anticlinal folds of schist, 
as above described, form a series of low rolling hills. In the distance 
the continuation of the Pats towards Chatania is visible. The schist 
hills slope gradually down towards the Tatapani basin, where (5 in fig. 1, 
Plate I) the Talchir boulder bed and shales are seen, at once distinguished, 
from the former by the dry jungles of thorns so characteristic in all 
the older Gondwana rocks. 

There is a variety of hornblendic gneiss remarkably like decomposed 

sandstone in appearance, with quartzose schist 
Sandstone-like gneiss. -, .^ • -.i 

dipping at a high angle towards the gneiss on the 

south, but forming a great fold as the dip turns round to the north again. 
The strike is east-north-east to west-south-west, the same as the great 
bounding fault which cuts off this area and throws the Gondwanas 
against the schists. 

Another area, but strategraphically related to the preceding, forms 

Second area of meta- a fork inclosiug the gneiss of the Lurgi-Chandaura 

morphic schists. hills (Mandru 3,373 feet, Andru 3,23 S feet), and 

stretching in a south-west direction, forms the low hilly country near 


The extreme eastern extension of the fork is composed of the sand- 
Ridge of the water, stone-like gneiss, thin-bedded and in parts resem- 
shed of Eer and Kunhur. \,\[^g -^{qq, schist ; it rests on the old gneiss forma- 
tion on which Dhanuar is situated. It is in situ in the nullah flowing 
north of the village in an east-west direction, and dips at a high angle 
from the gneiss. From thence in a south-west direction stretches far away 
a low range of hills of nearly uniform height, and forming at the same 
time the watershed between the confluents of the Rer and Kunhur 
rivers. This range is entirely composed of mica schist with associated 
quartz schist and quartz rock. Following it from 
east to west, I found it near Kobi, in the Goga 
stream section, composed of pure quartz rock, which changes near Rampur 
into a quartz rock with a few leaves of white mica disseminated through 
it Crossing the range from Rampur to Kapaut, we find also patches o£ 

( 133 ) 


hornblendic schists and garnet rock associated with this micaceous quartz 

schist. The bedding is somewhat obscure, owing 
Garnet rock. . • i i i 

to the dense vegetation covering the whole country. 

Though there is much of the rock exposed in patches and isolated 
masses, yet the bedding can only be observed here and there. 

The general character of a micaceous quartz schist remains the same, 
with the only difference that the lamination is more distinct towards the 
Changes into a mica ^®^^ ' ^^^ ^®^i' Maiapur the rock is almost a mica 
^'^^^^^- schist. The southern prong of the great fork 

above mentioned is different in aspect and lithological character. It forms 
a lower undulating country, stretching away to the gneiss Pats south of 
it, and well exposed in all streams between Dumarkola and Pertabpur. 

Though still quartzose, the rock has here more 
Pertabpur mica schist. , i i • i 

the character of a mica schist, extremely brittle and 

friable, being made up of very fine sandy grains of quartz and minute 
laminre of white mica, with garnets as accessory mineral. Separated 
from this area by the granitic ridges is a series of true mica schists, 
Thii-dareaofmetamor- hornblende schists and quartzites dipping from 
phic schists. ^i^g main mass of the granitic ridges ; their strike 

is nearly east- west, and the dip is high, about 55°, to north. 

Isolated masses of similar schists are met with and were mapped within 

Isolated masses of the granitic area, probably left standing when the 

schist in granite masses, intrusive granite forced its way in between the 

beds of metamorphic schists, thus probably explaining also the disturbed 

and folded character of the bedding of the schists. 

Another and by far the largest area of these schists was traversed 

north and east of the Gondwana basin. Beginning 
Fourth area. 

east of the basin immediately below the Talchirs 

near Mitgain we meet mica schist, strike nearly 

east- west, dip north ; a little further north, form- 
Mica schist. „ 

ing No. 326 H. T, (1757),^ we meet with 

^ On the 1-inch map. 

( 134 ) 


chlorite schist, strike west-north-west, east-south-east, dip north. Near 

the northern boundary of the coal-field, about a 
Chloritic schist. 

mile west of Gumharia, the strike of tne crystal- 
line schist becomes north-west to south-east, dipping north-east, at SO". 
It is there true mica schist, which rises up to considerable heights in the 
Khori hills. The road from Chumra to Kakankoja on the Kunhur tra- 
verses this ground, which is formed by one or more steep folds in the schist, 
there seen to alternate with a quartz rock of pebbly character. "With the 
exception of a few isolated masses of intrusive granite, the rocks be- 
tween the Khori hills and the gneissic region above described consist 
chiefly of mica schists and quartz schist, forming a slightly undulating 
country of an elevation of about 1,200 to 1,300 feet, with deeply eroded 
river-courses. Some of the folds rise somewhat higher and form these 
isolated masses, cut into deep valleys and sharp ridges by the number- 
less streams. The strike near Bluthar Chura, as indeed nearly all over this 
area, is north-west to south-east, dip north-east, but varying occasion- 
ally to an east-west strike. Numerous quartz reefs traverse the area, 
mostly in an east- west direction. 

Many hornblende dykes occur ; they may be taken as altered trap 
Hornblende dykes. dykcs. Such is observed east of Chura, in the 

I Trap dykes. Kursa stream ; direction north-west to south-east, 

thickness about 20 yards. It is a very close-grained rock, and has caused 
some local disturbance near the junction with the mica schist, which 
there shows the same strike as the dyke, with dip to the south-west. 
Near the boundary with the gneiss area of the Rer the folds in the 
Boundary with gneiss Daica schist gradually turn round to a north-east to 
natural. south-west direction — in fact, following the bound- 

ary line of the gneiss, which, I believe, is a natural one. 

Granitic rocks. 
These rocks occupy a considerable portion of the area examined, and 

probably form the base on which the Gondwana 

Granitic rocks. 

rocks of the more central parts of the coal-field 
rest. As exhibited on the map, we now find two long strips] of 

C 135 ) 


granitic rocks north and south of the field, of from three to four 
miles width on either side. Besides these, I came across several detached 
masses of intrusive granite north of my area, as well as numerous peg- 
matite veins in the older rocks, especially the old gneiss plateau of Chota 

As near as possible, the boundary -hne of the granite with the meta- 

morphic rocks is parallel with the line of faults 
Extent. / ^ 

which have lowered the Gondwana basin. An 

examination of the southern mass of granite between the villages of 
Khijuria-t (east) and the limits of my map on the Mahan river (west) 
shows that it probably includes both intrusive and metamorphic granite ; 
but the hills are quite inaccessible, being covered by dense jungle and not 
traversed by any roads or even jungle paths, so that a distinction could 
not be made on the map. The section between the Mahadeva sandstone 
on the north side and the Gobra hill on the south exposes a coarse-grained 
granite, showing all the constituents of the granite in single hand-speci- 
mens even, with isolated masses of garnet rock 
Garnet rock. 

amongst it, the relation of which to the granite 

could not be ascertained. Near the Chalgali section the minerals com- 
posing the granite get separated, and we meet there large masses of nearly 
pure felspar with scarcely any quartz or mica in it. The best exposure 
in the granitic ridge is seen along a rocky path leading from Lotki to 
Bhagwanpur. Starting from the former place (Lotki), we soon leave 
the mica schist (quartz schist) and enter the granitic ridge. There, veins 
of granite traverse the schist for long distances, and prove beyond doubt 

the intrusive character of the rock. Towards the 
Intrusive character. 

centre of the granitic ridge (about 3,000 feet high) 

we meet with a finer variety of granite, consisting of equal proportions 

of quartz, felspar, and white mica; but between 

that point and Lotki a coarse-grained porphyritic 

variety is seen, containing the same constituents, with tourmaline as 

accessory mineral, sometimes in large crystals. 

It is possible to find large blocks, consisting of nothing but milky 

( 136 ) 


quartz with tourmaline. In others, these two minerals are predomi- 
nant, the mica and felspar being scarcely dis- 
Toui'maline granite. , , _ _ . . 

tinguishable. Similar varieties are found on the 

northern slope of this mass, passing gradually into a coarse-grained 

variety of granite, but without the tourmaline. 

Along this section I observed several isolated strips of mica schist, 

much crushed and contorted, and showing signs of 
Mica schist inclosed. . , . 

having been subjected to further alteration, by heat 

or otherwise ; near the junction with the granitic mass, particles of felspar 

are found disseminated in the mica schist, and give it a gneissic character. 

The strike of the mica schist masses is generally that of the boundaries 

with the metamorphic schists, which also corresponds with the general 

strike of the latter in this region. Probably these masses are connected 

with the main mass of mica schist, and the intrusive granite has simply 

forced its way between the beds of the schists, separating some 

portions of them. 

The parallel section between Maiapur and Pahar Karua is very- 
similar, excepting that I did not meet with any remains of ciystalline 
schists in the granitic area. • 

The boundary between the schist and the granite I found about a 

mile north of Maiapur in crossing a small stream south of Deuri. For 

about two miles the path traverses a well-defined plateau of a finer- grained 

variety of granite, which here and there shows 
Gneissoid granite. . . 

a somewhat gneissic character, but which I cannot 

separate from the main granite area. 

North of the coal-field, between Palgi and Churka, granitic masses 

Area north of the appear again, apparently a continuation of the 

coal-field. granites of the south. In general outline of hills, 

as well as in lithological character of the rock, the granite of this ridge 

is identical with the rocks of the southern area. 

Tourmaline granites prevail, and form the main 

mass of the eastern extension of the ridge, sending out long spurs into 

the neighbouring schists. 

( 137 ) 


Between Palgi and Birkepa, numerous hornblende dykes and veins 

traverse the granite^ and, being able to withstand 

en e y es. disintegration better than the surrounding granite, 

these dykes have become gradually high ridges and prominent points in 

the outline of the hills. 

Granite of probably intrusive nature, exactly similar in lithological 

Intrusive granite of character to the Birkepa rock, occurs in the neigh- 

Chiraikund. bourhood of Chiraikund, east of the Rer river. In 

it, or probably along its contact with some trap dykes, was found galena, 

which has been already noticed by Mr. Mallet.^ 

Another detached mass of granite is found east of Chargar, on the 
Detached areas of Kunhur, about nine miles north of the boundary 
granite. of the coal-field, and it resembles in lithological 

character the granite of Chiraikund. 

In fig. 2, Plate I, I have shown these isolated masses of granite 
visible from a considerable distance, elevated in sharp ridges over the 
evenly denuded surfaces of gneiss as described above, page 4. The fore- 
ground of the profile, near the deserted village of Chatoli, is one of the 
numerous trap dykes showing concentric structure. The faulted boundary 
of the gneiss with the Mahadeva sandstone, in which this trap occurs 
{vide map), is not traceable in the landscape, owing to the even denuda- 
tion of the two rocks. 

The sub-metamoephic rocks. 
As before mentioned, there is a natural boundary of the sediment- 
ary rocks with the metamorphics on the southern edge of the field 
between the villages of Hadrai and Bella, and again further west- 
wards south of Jajawal. It is near these two boundaries that I 
observed two narrow strips of rocks of pre-Gondwana date, on which 
the Talchirs rest unconformably. The best exposure is the one between 
Hadrai and Kandia. The river Morne cuts through the whole section 
just above Kandia, forming a narrow and rocky gorge. I found a 
1 Records, Vol. V, p. 23. 

( 138 ) 


g-neissic granite at the base, nearest the village, and the uneven surface 

of it plastered over by a coarse conglomerate, which at first sight looks 

not unlike the Talchir boulder-bed, but is essen- 

Old conglomerate. ,■■,■, too , « -^ t • j^- ^ i 

tially different from it. It is entirely composed 

of metam Orphic boulders, perfectly rounded pebbles, chiefly of granite 

and gneiss, with a few blocks of mica schist. The whole is cemented 

together by a silicious rock which in some parts resembles a true chloritic 

schist. Thin beds of this material, with strings of pebbles, separate 

the boulder-bed into banks. 

The dip is very uneven and disturbed ; the conglomerate seems cinished 
ao-ainst the metamorphics. Near the contact, the bedding is nearly 
normal, but within a few hundred yards I found the beds of the upper 
sandstones (presently to be described) raised up, dipping 30° south, strike 
nearly east to west ; on these the Talchir rocks rest unconformably. (See 
section, fig. 3, Plate IV). 

Lower down the river, relatively north-westwards, we find that the 
Passes into quartz conglomerate passes gradually into a very hard 
sandstone. quartz sandstone, which at once reminds one of 

the sandstone of the Vindhyan range. It exhibits beautiful examples 
of ripple-marking, and the thicker beds of sandstone show false-bedding 
and contain many strings of grits and pebbles. 

Though the conglomerate is not identical with, still it looks sugges- 
tive of a possible relation with, the jasper boulder 
Possible correlation n r? i.- t • 

witli jasper conglomerate bed of the lowcr V indhyan formation, as I saw it 

o m yans. gouth of the escarpment near Agori Khas. I may 

mention here also that I could not help again being reminded of this and 

the Vindhyan iasper conglomerate when I saw the 

Similarity with the pi . -. 

old slate series of the great development of slates, quartzites and con- 
X ima ayas. glomerates of the Himalayas, which form a complex 

of beds not less than about 5,000 feet thickness below the lower silurian 
formation, and rest near Malari on the metamorphic series. Both at 
ISIalari and in the grand sections of Kharbasia in the Himalayas, the litho- 
logical sirailanty of this series with the jasper conglomerate of the penin- 

( 139 ) 


sula is complete^ even as to the colour. Again we meet with a mass of 
rocksj but this time of calcareous character, inclosed in a great fold of 
metamorphics between Munshari and Bageswar on the southern slope of 
the Himalayas. Here are shales/ more massive beds, and conglomerate 
beds, the debris in which is all, however, made up of limestone. Suppos- 
ing the identity of these formations with the lower Vindhyan jasper con- 
glomerate and with the beds near Kandia, it would assign a pre-Silurian 
age to the latter, probably Cambrian. 

South of Jajawal, in the Ramkola pargana, I met with a narrow 

strip of hard dark blue slates, resting on mica schists, 
Slates of Jajawal. , ^ . i • i -i i , r- r'n\ ji 

and dipping at a high angle (about 55 ) to the 

north-east. They are overlaid there by gritty Barakar sandstone. Most 
probably, these slates belong to the same group of semi-metamorphic beds, 
of which the Kandia beds are the type in the Ramkola field. Pos- 
sibly the semi-metamorphic rocks described by Mr. BalP from the Bis- 
rampur field also may be included in this group, but I have not seen his 
section. It is not at all unlikely that formerly this group has extended 
over a much larger area south of Sivguja, and from there th6 red 
quartzite boulders of Vindhyan type may have been derived, so common 
in the Talchirs of my area." 

The Gondwana Series. 
The coal-fields under description occupy a principal eastern arm 
of the main central area of Gondwana rocks, stretching from Tatapani 
due westward for more than 200 miles to near Jabalpur, and from 
the latter position extending for 300 miles by a long prolongation to 
the south-east to near Sambalpur, into close proximity of the Talchir 
field in Orissa. 

There is no doubt that the Gondwanas spread originally over a much 

Extending over larger wider extent of country than they do at present, 

area formerly. ^^^ numerous detached remains of Talchirs and 

uncertain sandstones plastering over some of the metamorphic rocks 

' Records, 1873, pt. 2. Vide Plate. II, fig. 2. 

( 140 ) 



north and south of the actual basin indicate their probable former extent. 

Startino- from Tatapani, we find a natural contact of Gondwanas resting 

on metamorphic schist along the eastern and north-eastern boundaries 

of the field. From near Gumharia a nearly east to west fault,^ indi- 

_ , . ^, cated bv fault-rock and much crumpling- of the 

Boundaries mostly •' x o 

faulted. strata, extends along the whole northern boundary, 

defining an angle in it near the boundary of the K-ewah State, where 
we find a high escarpment of Mahadeva sandstone abutting against the 
metamorphics. From there the boundary is again natural, and we find 
Talchirs resting on the gneiss. 

From Tatapani eastwards we see the coal-field cut off on the south 
Few natural bounda- ^J ^ S^'^^^ f^^^*^ throwing the several beds of 
ries. Gondwanas successively against crystalline rocks. 

Here and there the fault has traversed the latter and left natural bound- 
aries with the Gondwanas, exposing the Talchirs as lowest beds, which 
probably covered the floor of the basin over the entire surface. Such a 
natural boundary we find along the exposure of Talchirs west of Kandia, 
between Bhagwanpur and Dandkarua, and along the exposure in the 
Mahan-Rer nullahs ; the section through all the rocks of the Gondwanas 
near Namadhaka (about five miles south-by-west of Dandkarua) I fancy 
is brought about by denudation only, as there can be little doubt that 
the line of contact with the granite is faulted. 

Roughly speaking, the Gondwana area examined forms a narrow 

f t t f ^^^ (from twelve to about thirty miles wide) of sedi- 

Gondwanas. mentary rocks in the metamorphics, preserved from 

denudation only by their having subsided between lines of nearly parallel 

faults. The remaining portions of Gondwanas left at higher levels, 

resting on metamorphics, have been removed by 

denudation, though isolated patches of them are 

still found, here and there, outside the area of the field, thus clearly 

indicating the former extent of the basin. 

( 141 ) 



The oTound covered by the beds of the Talchir formation is not of 

g-reat extent in the Tatapani coal-field, though 

rocks belonging to this series are seen wherever 

the boundaries of the Gondwana basin are natural. The largest area 

covered by these rocks is to be found along the eastern extremity of the 

field, cropping out from beneath the Barakars in a belt of varying width 

of from half a mile to three miles, extending from Tatapani to near 


I have generally found them forming irregular beds and filling 

up hollows in the metamorphic rocks, which 

Lithoiogy. j^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ exposed through the Talchirs by 

denudation. The base bed is usually a reddish-brown and olive-coloured 
greenish shale of marly character, breaking into small angular pieces, 
being jointed in three directions. Light coloured, fine-grained sand- 
stones, with occasional pebbles, generally overlie these shales, and are 
followed by the Talchir conglomerate ; this series is often repeated several 
times by faulting, but the whole complex of beds may attain a total 
thickness of not more than 900 feet. The bedding is most irregular and 
the dip rolling ; the beds themselves are of very uneven thickness, thin- 
Bin«- out often at a few yards distance, and again thickening rapidly. 

This is especially the case with the fine-grained sandstones found 
alternating with, and replacing, the boulder bed and 
Boulders. shales. Pebbles and boulders, from the size of a 

pea to enormous blocks from 30 to 40 feet in diameter, are seemingly 
disseminated throughout all beds of this formation. These boulders 
were evidently deposited from above in a fine silty matrix, and it is im- 
possible to detect a regular or even deposition in this bed. Many of the 
boulders, of elongated shape, are standing perfectly upright in the matrix, 
and seem to have dropped from above into the fine clay. 

The latter is usually of a bluish or olive-green tint, but occasionally 
dark red or brownish silts prevail, as, for instance, in the Talchirs of 

( ua ) 



South Rewah, a continuation of the Ramkola-Tatapani field. This variety 
is then often mottled, and lumps and clunchy masses of the greenish 
clay are inclosed in the red silt. 

Such is shown in the beautiful exposures of Talehirs near Kandia, and, 
in fact, in all the nullahs cutting- through these beds in that part of the 
coal-field. I have shown it in fig. 2 of Plate II. We find there rounded 
and angular blocks of gneiss, hornblendic rock, quartzites and tourma- 
line oranite along with pebbles, and blocks of red quartz sandstone of 
Vindhyan type enclosed in the silt and also in the shales. In fact, 
throughout the Talchir beds, even in the fine, silty, greenish sandstone, 
pebbles are disseminated more or less. 

There are also the usual intercalated masses of fine-grained, yellowish 
green sandstone, with occasional strings of pebbles 

San one. ^^^ wovn boulders; they are almost invariably 

thick-bedded and often pass into either the shales or the boulder-bed, 
as, for instance, near Mitgain, where I noticed a thick mass of unusually 
hard sandstone with pebble strings, passing into fine-grained bright- 
coloured sandstone of the usual character. 

The sketch, fig. 1, Plate II, represents this mass of Talchir sand- 
stone near Mitgain, where it suddenly swells to a considerable thick- 
ness, and is denuded into enormous pot-holes all along the course of the 
nullah. Nearly everywhere the exposed portions of Talehirs are much 
denuded, and generally only form a thin layer over the underlying 
Denuded surface of metamorphics. This denudation seems partly, at 
Talehirs. least, to have taken place during pre-Barakar 

times, since I found at one place, in the detached mass near Dongardih, 
a denuded surface of Talehirs presenting old pot-holes filled by thinly 
laminated bluish-grey Barakar shales. Several of these pot-holes with 
their contents are now traversed and cut through by the present 
stream, which forms new pot-holes exposing sections of the old erosions 
with their shaly contents. 

( 143 ) 


A considerable thickness of beds, consisting of sandstones, flaggy beds 
Lithologlcal character ^nd shales, with numerous seams of coal, is found 
of Barakars. resting on Talchirs everywhere within the limits 

of this area and cropping out beneath beds belonging to upper groups 
of the lower Gondwanas. Next to the Mahadeva sandstones and shales, 
they occupy by far the greatest extent of ground, and are readily distin- 
guishable from the underlying Talchirs, the bound- 

ary with which is very sharp and well marked. 

An unconformity with the Talchirs is at least very probable in some 
sections. The boundary upwards is not well defined, as the change, 
both lithologlcal ly and palseontologically considered, is gradual. With 
the exception of the most eastern development of these beds near 
Tatapani, the whole area of Barakars is traversed by long faults, 
especially near and parallel to the great boundary fault of the north- 
eastern part of the coal-field. The upper series (Mahadevas), occu- 
pying the centre and main extent of the Gondwana basin, stretches 
eastward as a long strip, being there faulted against the metamor- 
phic rocks on the south side. In this field, at least, the Barakars are very 
distinct from the Talchirs, and lithologically the change is sudden to the 
fine-grained flags and sandstones with shales, all of which contain Bara- 
kar fossils. Where the junction is natural, the Barakars dip inwards and 
apparently conformably under the Mahadevas along with the intermedi- 
ate Raniganj and Panchet beds. 

The rocks most frequently met with are : — 

1. Sandstones, fine-grained, greyish-yellow, with varieties of white 

and reddish gritty sandstones, often false-bedded, and alter- 
nating with flaggy micaceous beds. 

2. Micaceous, thin-bedded, grey, shaly or flaggy sandstones, con- 
j taining carbonaceous matter. 

3. Coal-seams of variable thickness. As yet three distinct bands 

were met with; they occur mostly in the middle of the group, 
{ 144 ) 


and one near the top and just below the iron measures of the 
Raniganj group. 

The largest and best seams are in the vicinity of the Morne river, 
where we find a series of coal seams, ranging from a few inches to 1 
foot, and a fine seam of a little more than 7 feet, which remains pretty- 
constant ; towards the west this seam thins out considerably, and in the 
Suknai nullah the same bed decreases rapidly to. 3 feet 6 inches. In 
the nullah east of Budatand, falling into the Morne river, there is a 
band of coal with shaly partings of 17 feet, probably representing the 7 
feet seam of the Morne river sections. 

In the Barakars of the northern part of my area, the character of 
the rocks composing the group does not change, and we still meet with 
micaceous shaly sandstones and shales, containing coal, but of inferior 
quality, and having thinned out considerably ; but as the Barakar beds 
are only brought up by faulting, it is possible that the coal-seams are 
only some of the top ones, also seen in other sections, and that the better 
seams, which are elsewhere constant, are hidden beneath. 

Towards the extreme western tracts of the coal-field near the Banki 
nullah (tributary of the Morne river), the Barakars are faulted against 
the Mahadeva sandstone, and consist of hard, gritty sandstones, with 
numerous pot-holes. 

The entire thickness of the Barakars, as calculated from the Tata- 

pani sections, is probably not more than 900 


Roughly defining it, the Barakar group is characterised, as already 
stated, by fine-grained sandstones, dark micaceous and carboniferous 
shales, and coal-seams with decidedly a Barakar flora. 

Though it is difficult, in some sections even almost impossible, to lay 

Lithological charac- ^ne's hand on the exact point of junction of Bara- 

ter of Eaniganj. -^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ overlying group, yet it is not 

difficult to define in general the character of this lattei-, which is most 

B ( H5 ) 


distinctly developed in this field. Placed side by side^ the specimens 
with fossils from this group could not be distinguished from those of 
the Raniganj field, but other petrological characters are somewhat differ- 
ent, conspicuously so by the absence of coal. The Raniganj here consists 
chiefly of white felspathic and gritty sandstones, white shales with numer- 
ous Eaniganj fossils (plants), with thick beds of clay iron ores, ferru- 
ginous sandstones, with nodules of iron ores and iron shales, these latter 
well shown in the Sendur river sections. In short, whereas the Barakars 
are distinguished by the presence of coal-seams and carbonaceous shales, 
we find the Raniganj remarkably rich in iron ore bands, or nodules in 
other beds, and thin bands of iron shales. 

The approximate thickness of the whole group is probably not more 

than 1,300 feet. Deposits of this horizon are 
Thickness. , t • ^^ • i t i 

probably represented m all sections, but I have 

only mapped them as such where fossil evidence supports this view. 

Under this head I have included all the sandstones, grits, clays, and 
L'tboioo-ical cliarac- shales which occupy the space between the Rani- 
terof Pancbets. ganj and the typical Mahadevas, from which it is 

not always easy to distinguish them. The commonest rock of this 
series, and which occupies a large area, both vertically and horizontally, 
is a red clay, changing here and there into red clay shales and clayey 
sandstone. These rocks are generally alternating with white and yellow- 
ish hard shales, and in many sections changing into an olive-green clay^ 
sometimes mottled both colours. It is invariably overlaid by white 
friable sandstones, or similar red sandstones, which latter are difiicult to 
distinguish from similar beds in the Mahadeva sandstones, — especially 
as some beds of the former have even the brown gritty appearance of 
the latter with ferruginous partings. At several 
" localities I have found in the Panchet horizon a 

coarse brown or red conglomerate or grit, made up chiefly by round or 
angular pieces of quartz, the latter sometimes attaining the size of 
( 146 ) 


pigeon eggs. These beds then form low hills of rounded outline, but 

easily distinguished in appearance from Mahadevas. 1 have included this 

rock in the Panchets, though I have no fossil evidence to support my 

view, whereas in the Panchets proper I have found several characteristic 

forms of plants. 

The thickness of the Panchets in the Tatapani sections is estimated 

at from 1,200 to 1,500 feet, but it thins out con- 
Thickness. -Ill 

siderably towards the west. 

Rocks, chiefly sandstones, belonging to this series occupy by far the 

largest extent of ground. Unlike the rest of the 
Escarpments. r^ ■, / i • i t 

Gondwana rocks, which do not rise above 1,500 

feet above sea level in my area, the Mahadevas form bold escarpments, 

many of them perpendicular, even overhanging sometimes, and plateaux 

of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above the sea. 

Whereas the Barakars are remarkable for the dryness of soil, which 
is very sandy, and consequently the rivers of which rarely contain much 
water during the dry season, the Mahadevas by decomposing, as they do, 
into a heavy clay soil, give rise to perennial streams. Owing to this 
circumstance is also the freshness of the sal and mixed jungles on ground 
composed of Mahadevas, whereas Barakars and Talchirs invariably only 
can boast of dry thorns and species of Mimosa trees. 

I could not divide the Mahadevas farther in this area. Nearly the 
Lithological cliarac- whole mass is composcd of thick beds of reddish- 
ter of Mahadevas. brown, ferruginous, gritty sandstone, generally 

false-bedded and remarkable for hard ferruginous partings, which cut 
up the beds in a most singular manner, and, after the rock has undergone 
disintegration by denudation, remain standing like thin walls and long 
ridges in the mass of sandstone. 

Sometimes these partings make a network in the sandstone, and 

after the latter has been worn away, they form 
Ferruginous partings. 

a cellular mass oi striking appearance. Here 

( 147 ) 


and there^ thick layers of red iron ore are intercalated between the 

Mahadevas ; and a few earthy beds are met with, the only beds which 

have yielded fossils. 

The total thickness probably does not exceed 800 feet, this being- the 

Thickness of the Ma- difference of height between the top of the Tamor 

* escarpnaent and the level below, which is composed 

of older rocks. 

The rock masses of the Mahadevas are traversed in all directions by 

joints ; the steep outlines of the escarpments no 

doubt owe their existence to this extensive joint- 

i ng. As masses of the rock are undermined by the rivers below, blocks, 

more or less approaching a cubical shape, separate from the cliff above 

and come down the hill sides, thus always preserving a freshly broken 

surface to the escarpment, as shown in fig. 1, where, owing to the 

j_ f,y 

Fig. 1. Mabadeva escarpment of the Tamor hill, valley of the Mahan river. 

inclination of the strata, the face of the cliff is actually overhanging, the 
rocks splitting off along the joints, which are mostly normal to the line 
of bedding. 

( 148 ) 



The boldest and highest escarpments of the Mahadevas face the 
south, rising to nearly 3,000 feet (Tamorhill, 2,758 feet), as shown in the 
above sketch, fig. 1 ; the sandstones there form quite inaccessible cliffs, 
high above the older Gondwana rocks below (see fig. 3, pi. V), whereas 
towards the north they gradually flatten down to the general low level 
of the older rocks, with a few remarkable exceptions, as in the Pipra 
hill, 2,004 feet in elevation and which is nearly 800 feet above the level 
of the surrounding country (see fig. 1, pi. V). 

Proceeding from east to west, I noticed the Mahadeva sandstone first 
in the long north to south escarpment of Sendur-Pipraul ; it is formed 
of thick massive beds of gritty ferruginous sandstone dipping 20° to the 
west. From there the Mahadeva ridge ascends in one or two gi-eat steps 
of bold outlines, covered by dense jungles, the supposed haunts of 
numerous dacoits. The lithological uniformity is remarkable ; for miles 
and miles the character of the rock remains the same, a coarse gritty 
reddish-brown sandstone. 

Towards Rajketa the hills gradually subside into lower levels ; until 
seen from the north near that village, they appear 
*^^ ' but as small hillocks above the low undulating 


In fig. %, pi. VI, I have shown the natural profile of this part of the 
Mahadevas as seen from the south, from near Bara Barthi, in the Upper 
Morne valley ; the dip is there rolling about 20° towards the north-west, 
and in conseqaence the outline of the hills is rounded and totally unlike 
the usual contour of hills composed of this formation. 

But the rock is there, as elsewhere, composed of a succession of coarse 

brownish-red sandstones and rough grits with 
Ferruginous partings. .,-.1111 -n • j.- 

occasional pebble beds. Ferrugmous pai'tmgs are 
found in every bed — not always along the line of bedding, but traversing 
it and forming sometimes a network, the meshes of which vary in size 
from a few inches in diameter to many feet. 

Many thick layers of good haematite occur amongst the sandstone 
beds, but the native iron-smelters never make use of this or similar ores, 
but invariably only of very inferior ones of the upper Barakar beds. 

( 149 ) 


The most considerable patch of Mahadevas of my area is the large 

plateau of nearly square outline^ in a denuded bay of 
Eamkola plateau. 

which is situated the village of Ramkola. It 

presents a steep precipitous escarpment (fig. 1, p. 20) towards the south, 

with a more or less level surface, covered by jungle, traversed and 

denuded by numerous perennial streams. It is 

nearly surrounded by copious outbursts of trap, 

which appears on the surface both as huge dykes of many miles length, 

and on the south-eastern and eastern face of the escarpment as great 

intrusive sheets, spreading for miles over the lower rocks. In fig. .1, 

pi. VI, I have given the profile of the eastern escarpment of the Ramkola 

plateau, in which the Mahadevas (1) are seen to slope to the north-west, 

with the trap (2) forming the intrusive sheet beneath the strata of the 


The beds of the Mahadeva plateau, fig. 1, Plate VI, slope gently 

towards the north-west, excepting near the bounding fault, which extends 

from near Turpa (Rer river) towards the east, accompanied and flanked 

by parallel trap dykes (see fig. 3, pi. VI), where the dip increases 

considerably, and in one or two minor instances approaches the vertical. 

But this north-western corner of my Mahadeva area (see fig. 2, pi. V) 

is noteworthy for the fact that there I found a few 

traces of fossils. In a dark reddish-brown earthy 

shale between beds of Mahadeva grits, north of Khond, I found a few 

traces of plants, which Dr. Feistmantel determines as : 

Alethopteris, spec. 
Glossopteris ? * 

As shown in the last-mentioned section, the Mahadevas are thrown 
directly against the metamorphics, south of Turpa, the strata being raised 
up to about 45° to 50° south. A few miles to the south, however, the 
bedding becomes quite normal — almost horizontal — and is penetrated by 
several trap dykes running more or less in an east-west direction. South 

^ For the naming o£ my specimens, as well as for the forthcoming description of a few- 
new species of fossil plants from this coal-fieldj I am indebted to Dr. 0. Feistmantel. 

( 150 ) 


of Burwar, I found in the Dhursot nullah the trap shown in fig. '2 
(p. 25), beyond which the dip increases to the south or south-west, the 
sandstone beds containing a few earthy beds of shales with the above 

Though I have observed throughout the coal-field an apparent con- 
formity of the Mahadevas with the older Gond- 

Probable overlap. 

wana rocks, it is yet probable that the former over- 
lap the lower beds here and there. The nature of the jungle-covered 
country, however, makes it extremely difficult to decide this point. Near 
the south-eastern boundary of the field on the low ridge of metamoi-phics 
separating the Tatapani field from the Bisrampur field, patches of coarse 
reddish-brown grits and sandstones abound ; they form only a thin cover- 
ing on the metamorphics, and are evidently only the remains of a vast 
extent of Mahadeva rocks which once probably covered a great area, 
connecting the various fields. 


I have certainly come across three varieties of trap rock in my 
survey. A semi-metamorphic trap forms a dyke 

AllJGl'GCl urfip. 

of somewhat less than a mile in length, and 
only some 20 yards wide in the mica schist south-east of Chura. Near 
the dyke a disturbance is visible in the mica schist, the latter dipping 
from it. The direction of the dyke is north-west to south-east. It is an 
extremely dense variety, and almost resembles hornblendic rock. 

A basaltic rock caps nearly all the main gneiss plateau south of the 
^ , coal-field, and forms continuous sheets of perhaps 

Basalt caps on gneiss. ^ 

not more than 5 feet thick. Kemains of the trap 
sheets are found on the top of all the plateaus wherever the original 
surface has been preserved; on the lower hills, which evidently have 
undergone extensive denudation, we miss these traps. On the tops of 
the Lamti-pat and Gulgul-pat, fig. 1, pi. I, we find laterite associated 
vdth the trap, but the exact connection was not observed, owing to the 
dense vegetation covering the whole. 

( 151 ) 


But tbe main mass of the trap rocks in my survey is situated within 

Dykes and intrusive ^^^ boundaries o£ the coal-fieldj where it occurs in 

sheets of basaltic trap. ^^^ j^^,^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ intrusive sheets. Having 

reached the western extension of the basin before I finished the centre, 
I came on large sheets of trap in Barakars, and there took it at first 
for contemporaneous trap, owing* to the regularity of the apparently 
interbedded sheets between strata ; but I soon found out my mistake 
when I saw the continuation of the same traps traverse the Gondwanas 
as enormous dykes and without any regard to the stratification or age 
of the beds, cutting through all rocks from metamorphics to Mahadevas. 

The principal spreads of intrusive sheets are noticeable between the 
villages of Majurdaki and Gorgi, where they have pushed between beds 
probably of Barakar age and the overlying Mahadevas; subsequent 
denudation has then exposed great sheets of this trap, the latter showing 
nearly throughout a spheroidal structure. 

A similar but even larger sheet is found in the valley of denudation 
of the Morne and tributaries, extending across the whole width of the 
valley, covering the Barakars and loosing itself below the Mahadevas. 
Here and there the former are exposed in patches where the trap was 
removed by denudation, and good examples of the contact effects are 
then shown. Towards the north this intrusive sheet is connected with 
a dyke little less than half a mile in width, which extends in a north- 
westerly direction beyond the Morne river and cuts through the Maha- 
deva sandstone. 

The narrow strip of trap north of Namadhaka (5 miles north-west 
of Maiapur), at the foot of the Kalhota hil], is probably part of the 
intrusive sheet which is hidden by the Mahadeva sandstone of the 
Churipat hills. 

The northern half of the basin examined is traversed by numerous 

trap dykes, most of them being situated along 
Dykes along faults. 

faults. Some of the traps in the Nowadih sections 

(north of Damni) and of the Bhalui nullah section might be explained 

as being intrusive and repeated by faulting ; but there is clear evidence 

( 152 ) 



that the traps^ many of them very narrow, along the great east-20'- 
north to west- 20"- south fault along the Iria nullah are dykes erupted 
along the fault ; also the east-west dykes which run nearly parallel from 
near the Banki nullah westwards are clearly along lines of fault. 
This is Especially well seen near the contact of Mahadevas and Barakars 
of the Pipra hill, which is faulted, the lower beds of the former dis- 
appearing towards the east against the Barakars, and apparently dipping 
below them. The long dyke south of that locaHty, which at first runs 
nearly east and west, turns sharp round to the south-west near Maihewa, 
near which village the trap has intruded between beds of Barakars later- 
ally and still connected with the dyke. 

A similar example of intrusive trap was found in the Dhursot nullah 
(Bar river), where a north-west to south-east dyke, about 8 feet thick, 
has penetrated right and left into joints of the Mahadevas, forming veins 
of only a few inches thickness and conforming exactly to the surfaces 
of the joints, filling up every crevice in the sandstone, as shown in the 
accompanying fig. 2 : — 

Fig. 2. Trap dvke, ftllinj? up joints in Mahadera sandstone north of Khord, in the Dhursot nilllnh, 

( 153 ) 


The dykes south of the Pipra hill continue for some distance into 
the metamorphic rocks west of the Gondwanas, and two of them are 
found south of Chiraikund amongst granitic rocks. 

Numbers of parallel dykes are found near the north-western boundary 
of the Mahadevas in the neighbourhood of Naogai and Assandiah, some 
of them penetrating into the adjoining metamorphics. In fig. 2. j)l. I, 
1 have shown one of these long ridge-like dykes of trap south of Assan- 
diah. They are only covered with very little soil, and the onion-like 
structure of the trap is visible all over, and thus the presence of the trap 
can always be detected with the greatest ease. . A long dyke (see fig. 3, 
pi. VI) of this trap extends along the valley of the Rer, forming a 
high and precipitous wall of nearly north-west to south-east direction. 
It is connected in the south with the great intrusive sheets of the 
Jajawal area shown in fig. 3, pi. V. 

Recent Deposits. 
Before closing my description of rock-groups, I must briefly allude to 
the enormous deposits of recent sands and clays covering, more or less, 
the entire surface of the area examined by me. They present the greatest 
uniformity throughout the area, and are in no way different from the 
great alluvial deposits observed in the Palamow districts. It is mostly a 
fine silty deposit of sands with a few partings of clay, and here and there 
layers of pebbles from the neighbouring rocks. The greatest deposits 
were found in the northern half of my area, in the neighbourhood of the 
Ledho and Iria nullahs, where banks of 80 to 100 feet of them are expos- 
ed by the rivers. They usually show beautiful examples of false bedding, 
and here and there alternating layers of sand and pebbles. Wherever 
exposed, they have weathered into high, almost perpendicular, cliffs, and 
are washed out into a semblance of organ pipes. Not less common are 
examples of pillar structure, caused by the denudation of all the sand and 
clay, except the portion protected by capping pebbles or stones. The recent 
deposits covering the Talchirs are remarkable in so far that they contain a 
great deal of kunkur limestone of precisely the same character as that 
described from Daltonganj. 
( 154 ) 


PART 11. 




A. — Tatapani and Sendur River Sections. 

The boundaries of the lowest Gondwana rocks with the metamorphic 
rocks being natural between Tatapani and Mitgain, I obtained complete 
sections through all groups represented in this field. 

Descending the Tatapani nullah (tributary of the Sendur river), I 
Talchirs in Tatapani found Talchirs immediately below the hot spring ; 
^^^^^' they form beds of fine conglomerates, much denuded 

and merely plastering over the metamorphic rock beneath, which crops 
up in isolated patches. This is soon followed by the typical boulder-bed 
with intercalated beds of fine-grained yellowish green sandstone. Boulders 
of irregular shape and evidently worn, derived from the surj-ounding 
metamorphic rocks, are cemented together by rounded pebbles of the 
same material, as well as fine-grained sandstone and clays. Also here and 
there huge blocks of metamorphic rocks are found in this mass. The 
general direction of the strike is north-east to south-west, and rolling 
to north-west, under an angle of from 30° to 40°. Near the bend of the 
nullah at Moua-t the strike is north-south, the dip west. In fact, the 
strike is so changeable and tha dip rolhng, as usual in the Talchirs of 
this basin, that it is difficult to record all observations on the map. 
This conglomerate is overlaid by about 15 feet of an irregular bedded 
whitish-green sandstone with a few boulders and gravel of metamorphic 
rock scattered here and there. Above this sandstone again foUows 
boulder-bed. The villages of Tithert and Bhormi are on Talchirs, the 
boundary of which with the metamorphic rock below is well seen about 
500 yards east of the latter village. 

( 155 ) 


The triangular-shaped hill range north of Tatapani is composed of 
metamorphic schist, chiefly mica schist, and the boundary of the Talchirs 
skirts this hill along the western escarpment, the Talchirs dipping away 
from it. 

1. — Section along the nullah north of Bithiau. 
In all the nullahs north of Bithiau (deserted village) we observe the 
following section in descending order, fig. 1, Plate III — ground between 
the Sendur river and the Metamorphics : 

D. — Ieon Shales 

C- Barakabs 

B.— Talchirs 











Clay shales alternating with thin leafy iron shales. 

Coal-seam 5.' 

Shales alternating with thin-bedded sandstone. 

Coal-seam 1.' 

Shales, carbonaceous. 

Coal-seam 6." 

Sandstone with bituminous shales alternating. 

Coal-seam 2'. 

Bituminous shales. 

Coal-seam 10" passing into — 

Thin bed of sandstone. 

Clay shales, dark, with traces of fossil leaves. 

Coal-seam of 1' thickness. 

Shales, cai'bonaceous. 

Thin coal-seam passing into — 

Shales, micaceous and grey. 

Sandstone, fine-grained ochre-coloured. 


Sandstone, bright olive-coloured, irregular bed and 
thinning out. 

Shales of same character as bed 1. 


Pebble conglomerate. 

Thick-bedded sandstones. 

Talchir boulder-bed of typical character. 

Sandstone, whitish-yellow, with bands of pebbles. 

Shales, reddish-brown and olive-coloured, traversed by 
jointing in three or more directions, thereby separat- 
ing into small cubes and long needle-shaped forms. 
Here and there gritty, with scattered boulders of 
metamorphic rocks. 

-Metamorphic schists. 
( .156 ) 


It is very difficult to arrive at a true estimate of the thickness of the 

Talchir beds, owing to the rolling character of the 

Thickness of Talchirs. ,. , .. ,,,,,,,i ,• . n y i. 

dip ; but it IS probable that the estimate ot about 

700 feet for the Tatapaui sections comes very near the truth. 

The strike and dip of the Barak ars remain perfectly uniform in 

the Bithiau nullah; the former is north-south, 

Thickness of Barakars. „ i ,i , / t i • j ^ 

and dip is at 20 , to west, and the total horizontal 

length of the Barakar section being 2,640 feet, the thickness is exactly 
900 feet. This is confirmed by the sections north of Tatapdni, in the 
Chechra section and neighbouring nullahs, where I found a total hori- 
zontal length of section of 4,336 feet with a dip of 12°, to west-20°-south, 
which results in a total thickness of Barakars of 902 feet. 

The iron shales (17 to 18) which are intercalated between the Barakars 

and the following groups are very characteristic, 
Iron shales. . n i tt i • 

and occur near the junction of the Bithiau nullah 

with the stream which rises near Moua-t. 

Though there is no break of conformity between this series of Bara- 
kars and the following- beds, yet there is a sudden 

Eauiganj base-bed. 

and decided change of lithological character. On 
the iron shales rest masses of clay iron ore of considerable thickness, 
which being in situ in the river, have been denuded into the most 
grotesque forms. Evidently lying on it conformably, are masses of thick- 
bedded sandstone { 1 9j of ashy-grey colour with angular grits of quartz 
and large leaves of mica. Carbonaceous markings and indistinct plant- 
remains are found throughout the rock. It is very friable and crumbles 
away. Inclosed in this mass of gritty sandstone are lenticular masses of 
light grey micaceous shales, without fossils. Above it follows a pebble 
conglomerate of similar general character. These sandstones I consider 
as the base-bed of the Raniganj series, and it remains pretty constant 
in all the Tatapani sections. 

( 157 ) 



2. — Section along the nullah south of Agar-t. 
As the Moua-t nullah^ and subsequently the Sendur river, run along 
Section alon"' nullah ^^ strike, more or less, of the Raniganj series, 
south of Agar-t. ^^iQ section is not very clear ; but we obtain a very 

good one along the nullah south of Agar-t, where in descending order 
the following series occurs (see jfig. 1, Plate III) between the Mahadevas 
and the Sendur river : 

G. — MahADETAS . . Sandstone of the Pipraul escarpment, described above, page 21. 
f 47. Shales. 
46. Conglomerate with angular fragments of metamorphic 

45. White friable sandstone. 
44. Clays, clunchy. 
43. Thick beds of fine-grained white friable sandstone and 

shales alternating with grits. 
42. Thin bed of yellow, hard, ferruginous clay shales. 
41. Bed of carbonaceous clay. 
40. Thick-bedded white gritty sandstone, alternating with 

grey shales. 
39. Fine-grained white sandstone, very sandy. 
38. Sandstone with hands of iron ore. 
37. Clay shales. 

36. Grits, very friable, chiefly consisting of pebbles and frag- 
ments of quartz. Dip 15 to 20° S. W. 
35. Grey shales. 

34. Coarse conglomeratic sandstone and grits. 
33. Clunchy shales. 
32. Coarse-grained sandstone. 
31. Clunchy clay shales. 
30. Felspathic sandstone and grits. 

29. Thin bed of grey clay shales with boulders of beds be- 
f'28. Quartz sandstone alternating with red shales. 
I 27. Yellowish finer- grained sandstone with beds of red sand- 
I stone. 

«{ 26. Thick -bedded red feiTuginous sandstone with pebbles of 
quartz separating into jointed masses. 
25. Thick masses of quartz sandstone with occasional beds of 
(__ finer-grained yellow sandstone. 

( 158 ) 

F.— Panchets 

E.— Eaniganj 


24. Friable coarse-g'raiued fc4spatlnc sandstone with bauds of 
/ . 

iron ore. 

23. Sandstone and shales. 

22. Band of iron ore, 1 foot 6 inches. 

T^ Raniganj— r-contd. { ^-'- Calcareous, friable quartz sandstone, 1 foot 7 inchef;. 

20. Conchoidal grey clay shales, 9 inches. 

19. Grey sandstone, micaceous, with carbonaceous markings, 

occasional nodules of clay iron ore. The thickness is 

not seen, but about 8' is exposed. 

,^ _ „ ( 18. Ferruginous sandstone and bands of red iron ore. 

D.— Ieon Shales . ] 

i. 17. Iron shales with clay iron ore band. 

The entire thickness of the Raniganj series in this field is 1,550 feet, 

thus considerably exceeding" the Barak ars. Further 

west I observed that the Raniganj^ of precisely 

similar lithological character and containing typical fossils, thins out 
considerably and the Barakars are developed in greater force. The gen- 
eral dip is the same as that of the Barakars, namely, about 20° west 
or south-west, strike nearly from north to south. The physical conditions 
under which the Raniganj were deposited must have b^en very different 
from those prevailing during Barakar times, at least in this field. 
Instead of dark bituminous clay shales and fine brownish-yellow sand- 
stones with coal-seams, we meet here generally felspathie sandstones, 
ferruginous shales and bands of iron ore, resting on the characteristic 
micaceous ashy-grey sandstone bed No. 19. No trace of a coal-seam is 
visible, and, though I have found no fossils in this section, it is not 
difficult to identify this series with typical Raniganj elsewhere well 
developed in the coal-field. 

The following series of Panchets begins with a contact bed made up 

of boulders and debris from the beds beneath 

No. 29, and from this point the dip gradually 

decreases to about 15° south-west, the strike turning more to the north- 
west to south-east ; the total thickness of the group in this section is 
about 1,300 feet. The beds composing it can readily be distinguished 
from those forming the Raniganj. They are, as seen in the accompany- 
ing section, chiefly clays, variegated or red, alternating with shales and 

( 159 ) 


gritty 'sandstones. No fossils were obtained in this section, but in the 
same beds further westward several typical Panchet fossils were ob- 

The Mahadeva sandstone of usual type follows, but it is not clearly 

seen how this group is related to the underlying 
Mahadevas. . i • • , . . . , 

Panchets m this section ; but it is certain that the 

general strike and dip is the same, and it may be assumed to be con- 

This succession of beds, dipping at about ^0° to west, remains tolerably 
constant along the eastern part of the field and of the Pipraul-Sendur 
escarpment, and there is no doubt the groups represent a natural boundary 
of the field ; whilst south of the Sendur river, the whole series is cut off 
by the great Tatapani fault, as is well seen in all the small nullahs, which 
join the Sendur river from the south. 

The Mahadevas are somewhat disturbed near the fault, and some 
remains of them are found in hills and isolated blocks south of the 
fault, as, for instance, near Khijuria. The general dip of the Mahadeva 
sandstone is about 15° to 20°, to west-20°-south, forming a high and pre- 
cipitous escarpment facing east. 

North and north-west of the described sections, the dip of the beds 
of Gondwanas gradually decreases, and as the strike turns round to the 
west the bedding becomes almost horizontal. 

5. Section in the NuUiihs between Chechra and No. 326 H, T., north of 


In descending order we find (fig. 2, Plate III.) upper part of section 
obscured by recent deposits : < 

C. — Eaniganj. 24. Thick -bedded, coarse, gritty sandstone, felspathic, 
with nodules of ferruginous sandstone inclosed. 
Eroded in potholes. 

23. Purple thin-bedded sandstone, thickness 3' 6". 

22. Dark-blue shales, with clay iron ore nodules 2'. 

21. Felspathic sandstones 5'. 

( 160 ) 


20. a. — Dark-blue and grey shales, clunchy, with 
fossils, thickness about 2' 6". 
b. — Purple and blue shales with fossil leaves, thick- 
ness about 3' 6", lying nearly horizontal 
except near outcrop, where the dip is 5° 
19. Grey micaceous sandstone 14'. 
B, — BaraJcars. 

16, 17, & 18. Coal and coaly shale 5' ; blue shales 2'. 
15. Purplish and greenish-blue shales 5'. 

14. Coal-seam 6", rather shaly. 
No exposure, about 40'. 

C. — Raniganj. 19, Carbonaceous grey sandstone 150', game as bed 19 

of the Agar-t section. 
B. — Barakars. 16. Coal, with shaly partings, 3i'. 

15. Shales 5'. 

11 &c. Sandstone 21'. 
1 ? Ferruginous brown sandstone 115'. 
C.—SaniganJ. 19 ? Micaceous shaly flags, purplish, with carbonaceous 

^.—Bara&ars, are much faulted, and, as the nullah is extremely sandy, 
it is scarcely possible to make out the sequence. At first the 
beds are much obscured by sand for about 500 yards, followed 
by beds which I identified with beds of the Sendur sections 
as follows : — 

4. Purplish-red and grey shales, about 14'. 

2&3. Grey carbonaceous sandstone, locally faulted and 

1. Red and grey shales, 14', with the following fossils : — 
Vertebraria indica, Eoyle. 
Olossopteris communis, Fstm. 

„ browniana (indica 1). 

„ damudica, Fstm. 

k,-^TalcMrs, are represented in this section in great thickness, and are 
typical in lithological character. Great masses of the boulder 
bed, with associated marly shales showing the jointing as usua , 
of greenish-grey colour, occasionally reddish-brown and 
mottled. The strike is north-west to south-east, with a dip to 
the south-west of from 25 to 30°. With it occur large masses 
of fine mealy yellowish sandstones, with layers and bands of 
boulders, rapidly swelling or thinning out, being then often 
replaced by boulder ^beds. The sandstones are worn into 

( 161 ) 



grotesque forms by denudation in the river and are fuP 
of pebbles. In fig. 1, Plate II, I have represented this worn 
sandstone, which is seen well in the Mitgain nullah. The 
dip is rolling and the strike changeable. Near Mitgain the 
strike is north-east to south-west, and the dip south-east. In 
the nullah north-west of Mitgain they rest on mica schist, and 
near the No. 326 H. T. on chloritic schist. 

B.— Banki eiver Sections. 

4. — Section along the nullah east of Gidhi and in the Banki River to Panri 


In descending order : fig. 3^ Plate III. 

The numbers correspond with those of beds in the Sendur river 

G. — Mahadeva sandstone. 
F. — Panchets. 

f38. Soft greenish-yellow sandstone. 
37. Grey shales, with conchoidal fracture and much jointing. 
36. Ditto, but with covering of oxide of iron on joint surfaces. 
35. Purple shales, with carbonaceous markings and fossil traces. 
34. Purple clays, with fossils. 
33. Micaceous and ferruginous sandstone. 
32, Light-coloured grey shales with carbonaceous markings, 
31. Ferruginous micaceous sandstone separating into square blocks. 
30. Soft yellowish sandstone. 

(__29. Ferruginous hard sandstone with beds of pebbly softer sandstone 
— Itaniganj. 
f- No exposure. 

Rolled boulders of nodular clay iron ore in sand. 
23. Yellowish thinly laminated shales, nearly horizontal. 
22. Grey shales with fossils, passing into beds above containing— 
Glossopteris angwstifolia, Egt. 
„ retifera, Fstm. 

„ communis, Fstm. 

21. Felspathic white sandstone. 

/"Dark shales and sandstones, much disturbed. 
20. < Shales with conchoidal fracture, with flaggy sandstone beds, hori- 
/ zontal and rolling, much jointed. 

1^19. Thick beds of sandstone, with strings of quartz pebbles, jointed. 
No exposure. 

( 16a ) 

Dip 8° south-west { 


Dip rolling 




"B. - Bavdkars. 

flO. Conl-seam exposed 2". 
9. Shaly sandstone 1' 2'. 
8. Coal-seam 1' 2". 
7. Snndstono 8' 2". 

16 f 7.,- 

( Coal-seam 8 6 . 


1 19. Thick -bedded sandstone. 

I 1 8. Thin band of clay iron ore 6". 

j 17. Grey sliales, nearly horizontal. 

] 16. Coal-seam, partly hidden undor water. 

115. Finegrained grey sandstone, micaceous; strike east-west, dip 

slightly south, locally disturbed, about 5' thickness. 
. 14. Shales. 

: 13. Sandstone, strike east-west, dip 8° south, but rolling. 
{ 12. Sbales. 

I 11. Ferruginous sandstone. 

[ 8, 9, 10. Coal-seam and shales 1', south-east to north-west, dip 10° south- 
j west. 

6, 7. Ferruginous sandstone and shales. 

5. Coal-bed 1'. 
l- 1 to 4. Ferruginous sandstone, showing a very corroded surface ; much 
hidden by alluvium. 

A. — Talohirs. 

Of typical character ; boulder bed with silty sandstones and shales of 

conchoidal fracture, dip 50" south-west. 
Resting on metamorphic schists. 

Descendiug from the village Panri, which stands on mica schist, to the 
Banki nullah by the road to Pipraul^ we find Talchir boulder bed and 
shales resting- on the metamorphics in the river, raised to 50° probably by 
lateral pressure, this boundary being- near the great subsiding fault, 
which farther to the west cuts off the coal-field on the north. 

The section through the Barakars is completely analogous to the 
sections already described in the Bithiau nullah. The greatest sub- 
sidence in the Tatapani portion of the field having taken place towards the 

( 163 ) 



south-west^ some disturbances and faulting- are visible in the second 
half of the Barakar section, which are not difficult to recognize. But the 
Rauiganj and Panchet groups are much obscured by the covering of 
alluvial deposits in all the gullies leading down from the Mahadeva hills. 

5. — Section along the nallaJis left and right of Banki River west of 


This section presents considerable difficulties in comparing' it with 
former ones, being much faulted, and certain beds have a peculiar local 
development, others evidently have died out. But descending from the 
Mahadeva sandstone which there has been denuded considerably, sloping- 
gradually down to the level of the Banki valley, we find in descending 
order, fig. 1, Plate IV : — 

I.— Pakchets 

II.— Raniganj 

III.— Baeakaes 
( 164 ) 

/ 21. For some distance no exposure ; after that, here and there 
a friable felspathic sandstone grit and conglomerate 
beds, probably of Panchet age. 
'20. Ferruginous mottled sandstone, almost ironstone. 
1 19. About 20 feet of sandstone. 

17. Red friable conchoidal shales, breaking up into small frag- 
nients through extensive jointing, with intercalated bed 
of yellow shales (about 20 feet). Top bed a white clay. 

f 16. About 50 feet thickness of shales, some very ferruginous, 
alternating with clay shales and bands of ferruginous 
nodules of spherical structure, containing the foUow- 
i)ig fossils : 

Glossopteris angustifolia, Bgt. 
„ indica, Bgt. 

„ communis, Fstm. 

These shales are jointed in several directions, and consequently 
break up into small needle-shaped forms ; they are much 
faulted and several times repeated. 
Dip 10° south-west. 
15. Sandstone 8'. 
1^14. Shales 6'. 

13. Shaly coal, the base hidden below water ; dips under low 
angle south-west. (16 of Bithiau section, p. 28). 




II.— Eaniqanj , 

'16. Light-coloured shales with thin partings of sandstone 
containing — 
Glossopteris angustifolia, Bgt. 
J, indlca, Bgt. (Schmp.) 

„ communis, Fstin. 

' 17. Ferruginous sandstone. 

The last two beds areMS. Thick bed of clay shales of conchoidal fracture, drab and 
repeated several times by >• „ i , i .,, ., „ 

faulting. ) yellowish coloured, with oxide of iron on joint surfaces. 

f 3. Sandstone. 

4. Purple and bluish shales with micaceous layers on partings 
and fossils : — 

Glossopteris communis, Fstiu. 

5. Sandstone with bed of mica shale full of carbonaceous 

6. Dark shales with shining coaly matter about 4', containing 
a bad coal-seam of about 1' thickness. 

7. Ripple-marked brown sandstone, 3'. 

8. Sandy shales and hard flaggy sandstone. 

9. Hard flaggy quartz sandstone, 1'. 

10. Dark carbonaceous shales (jointed) 2'. 

11. Flaggy quartz sandstone, 1' 6". 

12. Clays and grey micaceous shales. 

13. Barakar sandstone and shales with coal 6' 4", position not 
(^ clear. 

The detailed section of bed 13 (16 in Agar-t section) is as follows : — 

In descending order : 

III. — Babakaes 



. 2' 









. V 

Shaly coal 

. r 

Shales . 

. 1 

Shaly coal 




This section is not always clear, owing to the nnmerous local disturb • 
ances and repetitions by faulting. In fact, the field is so greatly 

( 165 ) 


shattered; especially towards the western and sonth-western portion of 
it, that a strict correlation of the beds is not always possible. But 
it is very probable that beds 16^ 17, 18, and 19 correspond with 
beds of precisely similar lithological character seen in the Sendur river 
section near Mitgain and in the nnllah near Bithiau (north of that 
place) .1 

The coal is nowhere seen to advantage, and the quality seems very 
inferior • it is^ in fact^ only a lignite, and does not promise to be profitable 
for working. 

6. — Section along the Nidlah north of Meguli. 

In descending order from south to north : — 
South : Banki Nullah 

5. Thiu-bedded sandstone with shales and a thin bed of coAL ; dip 
gradually flattening. 

4. Light-coloured shales with bands of reddish shales and some ferru- 
ginous hard bands, with concentric nodules of iron ore. 

3. Soft clay shales, dark coloured near base, lighter towards top. 
Strike as sandstone. Containing Glossopteris ovalis, Fstml. n. sp • 

2. Hard quartzose white sandstone, alternating with softer beds and 
shales, probably repeated by faulting, strike nearly east to west, 
dip 20° sonth. A few nodules of ironstone are scattered through- 
out the mass. 

1. Micaschist, strike north-north-west to south-south-east, dip 80° 
uorth-east to east. 
North : 

Banki Nullah. 
Both this section and the exposure in the nullahs south of Gumharia 
show that the Talchirs are overlapped by the Barakars, and that 
the latter rest directly on mica schist, being represented by hard quartz 
sandstone with ripple marking on surface of beds. On the map I have 
marked this grouj) of shales and sandstones as Barakars^ but Dr. Feist- 
mantel considers the form of Glossopteris contained in bed 3 as a Rani- 
ganj form : it may be that beds of that horizon^ which is well represented 
in the sections west of this locality^ strike across. It is at any time 

1 See fig. 3, Plate 111. 
( 166 ) 


very difficult to make out the relations of beds in the dense jungles 
which cover every square mile of ground in this field, 

7. — Section along the Nullahs between Bagra {North) and Laioa (South). 

In ascending- order : — 

North : village of Bagra on mica schist. Just south of that place a series of 
low ridges extend in a nearly east-westerly direction, being composed of 
a hard porous (cellular) rock, resembling Eauchwacke. This rock puz- 
zled me a good deal at first, but afterwards I found that it is merely 
filling up the long lines of fault, scarcely without interruption, and I 
obtained clear sections through it afterwards near Palgi and also south of 
Lundra, where the relation to the other rocks is unmistakeable. Imme- 
diately south of this ridge I found sandstone and shales of probable 
Eaniganj age faulted against the old rocks, but so shattered that a 
succession of beds could only be obtained here and there. 

In descending order^ a short distance further down stream^ I could 
make out : — 

1. An unevenly bedded red grit or sandstone in thick masses, very soft, strike 

north-west to south-east, dip south-west. 

2. Thin-bedded red hard ferruginous sandstone, in places with a good red iron 

ore, denuded into furrows and ridges on the surface, not unlike some of 
the partings in the Mahadeva sandstone. Quartz pebbles and grits in 

3. White sandy beds, very soft, dip 5°, to south-west. 

4. Coarse-grained sandstone. 

Trap dyke, showing concentric structure here and there, strike east-west, 
thickness 36'. 

5. Sandstone, ferruginous. 

These beds, however, are so much shattered by local faulting that it 
would be impossible to say with any degree of certainty to which group 
they belong ; and in addition, the nullah does not afford a good 
section there, the rocks being obscured by alluvium. But a little further 
down, clay shales of a Barakar appearance come in, which I have classed 
as such on the map. From there the section is an ascending one, but 
still, and for some distance, disturbed by faulting. However we get 

f 167 ) 


ag-ain into the ferruginous g-rits and sandstones with clay iron ore, cha- 
racteristic of Ranig-anj. Further on again — 

Ascending : — 

p , , 1. Red plastic clay of Panchet type. 

2. Purple and yellow banded gritty sandstone, towards base, 

a band of hard shale 1", and partings of micaceous 

3. Purple banded clays, nearly horizontal, thickness 6', with 

parting of micaceous shale. 

4. Sandstone, 9' thickness. 

5. Ferruginous ditto. 

6. Mahadeva sandstone. 

8, — Section in the Si la Chua Nullah. 
Nearly the same succession of rocks, crushed and tumbled together in 
the most perplexing manner, is met with in the dry nullah of Sita Chua, 
running into the Banki nullah east of Dhamni. North of the former 
village I met metamorphic rock (mica schist and quartz schist). In 
the nullah near the village I met a white mealy soft sandstone, not 
unlike what I saw in the former section (No. 301 H. T. is composed of it) ; 
here and there it is mottled with reddish beds, but otherwise it resembles 
the Mahadevas. It is hollowed out in large pot-holes, one of which is 
worshipped as Sita Chua (the rise of Sita) . In the many windings of 
this rivulet, only here and there rocks appear in situ, the rest are hidden 
by sands and rubbish. In the bed of the Banki nullah near the junction 
with the Sita Chua nullah Raniganj clay shales are exposed, and a 
little further west in the bend of this river trap is in situ, and forms a 
dyke across it; I traced this dyke for miles in a nearly east- west 
direction towards Nowadih. The rocks, however, right and left of the 
Banki nullah, are so much denuded and the whole country levelled down 
to the river banks, that no exposure is seen for miles round until we get 
to Dhamni, where red clays are seen, overlaid further on by Mahadeva 
sandstone. These red clays occupy invariably the place just below. the 
Mahadevas, and most probably represent Panchets. This section, and 
( 168 


the one previously described, would not be intelligible if I had not 
obtained a clear section between Nowadih and Gargori. 

9. — Section in the Nidlahs {tributaries of the Banki river) between Gargori 

and Nowadih, 

In descending order : fig. 2, pi. 4. 


M. Mahadevas. 
Ferruginous sandstone. 

P. Panchets. 

1. White sand or mealy sandstone. 

2. Red and purplish sandstone and marls. 

P. Raniganj. 

1. Grey micaceous and thin-bedded sandstone. 

2. Micaceous and carbonaceous shales with fossils : 

Glossopteris communis, Pstm. 
„ angustifolia, Bgt. 

3. Marly ochre-coloured shales, with numerous traces of leaves and 

equisetaceous stalks. 

4. Hard yellow sandstone. 

5. Micaceous shales and sandstone. 

Fault 1. 
M. Mahadeva sandstone. 

P. Panchets. 

1. White marly sandstone. 

2. Eed clays and marls. 

R. Raniganj. 

1. Shales. 

1. White sands. 
2.. Purple clays. 

Fault 2. 
P. Panchets. 

R. Raniganj. 
1. Shales and sandstone. 

Faitlt 3. 
P. Panchets. 


( 369 ) 


R. Raniganj . 

Fault 4. 
T, trap dyke, showing all gradations from hard igneous rock to concentric struc- 
ture and greenish tuff, in the latter condition resembling Talchir shales. The Pan- 
chet shales are altered into a burnt brick-like appearance, with steel-blue contact sur- 

F. PancJiets. 
Marls and cl;i3's, dipping north, from the trap. 

M. Mahadeva sandstone. 

Fault 5. 
R. Raniganj. 

Shales, dipping 7° north. 

T. Trap dyhe. 

P. PancJiets. 
Red clays and marls, with white, somewhat chalky, sandstone above. 
M. Mahadeva sandstone. 

Fault 6. 
R. Raniganj. 

Shales with- 

Glossopteris, spec, no v. 

T. Trap dykes. 

P. Panchet. 


M. Mahadeva sandstone. 

Fault 7. 

T. Trap dyke. 

Bounding fault with fault-rock. 

Metamorphic quartzite. " . 

North, village of Nowadih. 

Undoubtedly the great lowering of the area by the fault near Nowa- 
dih has crushed and shattered the beds near it, mostly in long parallel 
lines, the traces of which could be observed in the former sections. 
( 170 ) 



A. — Iria River Sections. 
The country between Dhamni and Karamdiha forming the watershed 
between the Banki aud Iria nullahs is very difficult of access ; dense jungles 
cover most of the ground^ and great deposits of alluvial sands and clays 
extend all over that part of the field, so that the nullahs seldom expose 
rock in sitn, and that only at long intervals.^ 

10. — Regai Nullah and neighbotinng coxmtry. 

In the Regai nullah, near the village, I met with clayey sandstones 
with marly partings of a dense red brick colour, which I noticed in many 
sections intercalated between the Panchets and Mahadeva sandstone, and 
which I connect with the former. They are lithologically identical with 
the Panchets near Chumra and near Lawa already noticed, and I have 
also met them in great force in the southern outcrops of the basin near 
Kachia, overlying the Raniganj series ; all are most probably to be corre- 
lated with the red and purple clays of Lawa. Between the Regai and 
Iria nullahs calcareous gritty sandstones, very soft, alternate with and 
pass into this red sandstone. Partings of ferruginous plates of slag- 
like appearance remind one of the Mahadeva sandstone, but still I separ- 
ate the group from the overlying sandstone of that period. 

These sandstones all show false bedding, sometimes as much as 45° 
with the plane of stratification ; an overlap occurs in every section, so 
that it is veiy difiicult to correlate beds of even adjoining sections. The 
red clays usually appear between the sandstone beds as thin partings and 
often as lenticular masses of considerable dimensions. Here and there 
the red clay passes into motley lavender-coloured clay shales in which I 
found fossils a short distance down the river. 

A long fault of east-by-north direction separates the mass of 
Panchet sandstones and shales, and along this line of fracture a narrow 

1 Several names that have to be used in describing this wild country are only marked 
on the 1-inch maps. Special copies of those maps can be obtained at the Geologictil Survey 
Office by any one wishing for the detailed information. 

■ ( 171 ) 


dyke of trap may be traced for a considerable distance. Between Palgi 
and Thurkunda the sequence of beds is the same as in the Nowadih section, 
but between that locality and Karamdiha the relations are very obscurCj 
only here and there reddish sandstone or clays indicate the presence of 
Panchet rocks. 

11. — Sections in the Ledho Nullah north of Karamdiha. 

Near the village of Karamdiha trap is in situ and forms the hill on 
which the village is situated. But immediately north of the place, in 
the Ledho nullah, I found :— 

2. — Haniganj beds consisting of a series of shales and thin-bedded sandstones of a 
type which is best seen near Parasdiha in the Morne river, as will be 
shown further on. These beds are exposed north-east of the Karamdiha 
village on the slope down to the river ; the strike is north-east to south- 
west, dipping about 5° to south-east, below the upper beds, which I shall 
notice presently. The cliff consists in descending order of : — 

(d) light-coloured soft shales, and sandstone 1'; (c) clay shales, very friable ; 
(5) carbonaceous shales with a thin bed of leafy coal ; this bed resembles 
a similar layer of carbonized leaves seen in the Reonti cliff, to be 
described further on. Eemains of Glossopteris communis, Fstm., and 
G- angustifolia, Bgt., were found in these shales, (a) Dark conchoidal 

1. Barakar shales and sandstones of the typical character ; the base is not seen, 
being covered up by the alluvial deposits of the river. 

A short distance higher up the river, at a place where two small 
streams join the Ledho, south-east of Sihai, a group of beds are seen 
consisting in descending order of — 

3. Panchets. k. Gritty sandstones with ferruginous partings, overlaid and inter- 
stratified with red clays and gritty sandstone. 

i. Red shales ... ... ... '^ 

h: Ferruginous sandstone ... ... >Dip 5 to 7° north-east. 

g. Whitish grey marly shales ...J 

f. Red shales. 

e. Thin beds of sandstone of Mahadeva character with ferruginous 

d. White shales and thin-bedded sandstone. 
( 172 ) 


c. Ked shales 3'6'' of the same type as those seen in the Lawa sec- 
tion (7). 
I. Ferruginous yellow and variegated sandstones and shales with bands 
of iron ore, with an irregular band of gritty sandstone of about 
8' thickness, thinning out to about 1'6'' within a distance of 20 
yards. The dip is rolling, about 5° to north-west. 
In places where the upper beds are denuded, this sandstone is over- 
laid by a coarse breccia consisting chiefly of fra^;ments of Mahadeva- 
like sandstone, ironstone nodules, with rolled fragments of 
metamorphic rocks cemented together by a matrix of ferruginous 
matter, the whole, however, only of recent origin. 
a. Whitish-grey marly shales with — 
Glossopteris angustifolia, Bgt. 

„ communis, Fstra., and 

Thinnfeldia-Yike ferns. 
Ascending the southern branch o£ the Ledho nullah, south of Salsull, 
T got again into the Raniganj group dipping below the above beds of 
Panchet type. 

12. — Sections between Karamdiha and No. 506 H. T., including the Lower 
Ledho, Chorki, and Kundkepi Nullahs. 

The river bed between Karamdiha and Bhalui is so sandy that only 
few exposures are met with, but it is probable that the isolated cliffs seen 
belong to the Panchet group, being a continuation of the Panchets of the 
upper Ledho nullah. The first rock in situ is found in the great bend of 
the river about a mile west of the village, where iu descending order I 
found •. — 

Panchets. f. Yellow marly clays with ferruginous nodules, 
e. Eed marls. 
d. Yellow marly clays. 
c. Light grey marly shales, very friable. 

h. Dark and variegated clay shales, towards top micaceous and shaly, with 
Glossopteris communis, Fstm. 
Pecopteris ? odontopteroides, M. * 

a. Light grey marly shales and clays, very friable. 

The dip is rolling, but generally to the south; the whole is overlaid by 
thick-bedded masses of grits with strings of pebbles very similar to the 
Lundra grits which will be described further on. 

( 173 ) 


Between the villages of Bhalui and Boder the beds are much shattered ^ 
and a series of local parallel faults run across in a south-west to north- 
east direction. Since we find trap dykes along these lines of disturbances^ 
similar to the Nowadih section, it is probable that the local disturbances 
are only owing to the eruption of trap. The Ledho and Bhalui nullahs 
afford the only opportunities for examination^ so it was impossible to trace 
the lines of faults beyond the beds of the rivers^ and I had to trust to con- 
jecture for the remainder.^ In the Ledho south of Bhalui I observe the 
coarse Panchet grits to dip southwards, where they are suddenly cut off, 
thrown down to the level of the Barakars, which dip there at 8°, to east ; 
descending I found : — 

a. Thin-bedded sandstone and shales. 
. i. Grey clays with patches of variegated shales with— 

Vertebraria indica, Royle. 

Glossopteris communis, Fstm. 

c. Ripple-marked sandstone with partings of iron ore. 

d. Green micaceous marly shales, somewhat like Talchirs in appearance. 

e. Marly yellow and reddish shales of great thickness, near base friable grey 

/. Thin bed of coal, 
ff. Same as e. 

h. Coal with shaly partings 5' 2." 

i. Greenish marly shales, breaking into small rhomboidal fragments, with in- 
tercalated grey shales and a parting of bituminous shales 1.'' 
;. Great thickness of bituminous shales. 
k. Grey micaceous fine-grained sandstone. 
I. Blue shales. 

Trap dyTce. 
Barakar sandstone and shales. 

Trap dyke. 
Barakar sandstone jointed into brick-like masses. 

Blue shales with coal seams above sandstone beds, dipping about 70° east. 

' This remark applies also to the Sita Chua and Nowadih sections ; rocks appeared 
in situ only in the beds of the streams, and the lines of fault had to be continued in per- 
fectly straight lines as shown on the map, owing to the obscurity of all the interveuiug 

( 174 ) 


Maniganj shales and sandstones in high cliflFs along bank of Ledho nullah, dip 
south-east, gradually changing to south. 

Exposure in Blialui Nullah. 

Descending- : dip 6°--7° to east. 
JSarakars. h. Blue clay. 

g. Same as e, with parting of thin bed of micaceous sandstone. 
/. Thick bed of micaceous grey sandstone. 
e. Friable dark blue and ferruginous shales. 
d. Same as h. 

c. Bituminous shales. 

b. Thin ferruginous bed. 

a. Greenish and blue shales with nodules of iron ore. 

The CJiorU Nullah. 
Dip 25° east_, exposes a section through the following Raniganj 
rocks ; descending : 

p. Thin-bedded sandstone and shales, reddish micaceous, very soft. 

0. Micaceous clayey shales. 
n. Hard micaceous sandstone. 

m. Coaly shale with thin seams of coal. 

1. Banded leafy sandstone. 

1c. Hard thick-bedded sandstone, fine-grained. 
i. Thin-bed of calcareous soft sandstone. 
h. „ „ micaceous shaly sandstone (Eeonti type) . 
g. Thin beds of clay shales. 
/. Same as h. 
t. Ferruginous shales. 

d. Soft thick-bedded sandstone. 

c. Ripple-marked thin-bedded sandstone (as h). 

h. Thin-bedded ferruginous and variegated sandstone and shales; marly 

and micaceous at places, with concretionary structure. 
a. Thick beds of ferruginous sandstone. 

About a mile south of Kundkepi these beds are cut off by the bound- 
ing fault, which throws them against the metamorphfcs — here tour- 
maline granite. 

In all the small rivulets falling into the Iria nullah east of Colhuar 
village (not on the map), we find shales and sandstone evidently belong- 
ing to the same group of rocks (Raniganj) dipping below the hill No. 

( 175 ) 


506 H. T., which is composed of red grits and sandstone with red clays 
beloWj which I identify with the Panchets, as shown in the eastern 
sections. These strata cover the Raniganj below, forming an oblong 
patch on them. 

South of the Iria nullah the Raniganj series is cut off by a fault, 
probably the same which I observed south of Karamdiha, but here it is 
well shown in all the nullahs coming from Kotrahi and Garia. The 
direction of this fault is then west-1 0°-south to east-10°-north, the 
fracture is nearly perpendicular with a slight dip to the south, bringing 
the sandstone and shales on the same level with the adjoining Mahadeva 
sandstone. The fracture is filled up with fault-rock, very ferruginous 
and hard, which is less affected by subaerial denudation than the adjoin- 
ing rocks, and consequently is left as a wall-like ridge of about 5 feet in 
thickness standing high above the sandstones. 

13. — Section along the Balsotha Nullah. 

The Balsotha nullah and the nullahs west of it falling into the Iria 
and Morne have denuded away the whole of the Panchet grits and 
Raniganj beds and left only the Barakars in shattered remains, bounded 
on the north by the fault between Chorki and Geruani, and along the 
south and west by the Mahadeva hills, which are faulted against the 
Barakars, as is well seen in all the river sections. 

The section along the Balsotha Nullah between Saura on the north 
and the Iria nullah south is as follows : — 

Saura village is on tourmaline granite, and the fault boundary with 
the Gondwanas is shown well in the bed of the river, where a ridge of 
porous fault-rock (chiefly quartz) fills up the fracture. 

In ascending order : — 


1. Pine-grained sandstone and shales with shaly sandstone, dip 35" south- 


2. Grey and variegated conchoidal shales. 

3. Coal, with partings of shales, thickness 2' 6", dip 25° soulh-east. 

4. Ripple-marked variegated sandstones. 

5. Bituminous shales, with thin partings of coal, thickness 1'. 
( 176 ) 


6. Shales. 

7. Thick-bedded sandstone. 

8. Shaly micaceous sandstone, 15° south-east. 

9. Soft unevenly bedded calcareous sandstone, with gritty beds. 

10. Shales and shaly sandstones. 

11. Thick mass of false-bedded sandstone oveiiappng locally the series below. 

12. Shales and banded sandstones, 5° south-east. 

Thick bed of sandstone. 

Fault. . 
Beds are here much disturbed, and the dip changes gradually to east 
and north-east, and finally to north, at 38°, when we find in descending 
order : 

Banded sandstones and shales. 
Soft sandstones. 


Same beds as above : 

1. Sandstone. 

f Grey conchoidal shales, bituminous, with banded micaceous and ripple- 

I marked sandstones, dip 15° north, with — 

2. i Grey clay shales (near junction with Balsotha nullah, dip 8° uorth- 
I east. 

l^ Banded micaceous sandstone. 

3. Shales with Coal. 

The whole series is, however, very much disturbed and shattered, and 

further on it appears that the same group of shales and sandstones are 
several times repeated. 

The oblong expanse of Barakars mapped between the Balsotha 
nullah and the Pipra hills offers only a few exposures in the shallow 
nullahs. At several places south of the Pipra hill, fig. 1, Plate 5, and 
again near Maihewa, Barakar shales, with traces of leaves, are unmis- 
takeable, but the remainder seems to be mostly fine-grained sandstone of 
Barakar type, traversed in several directions, as already described, by trap 
dykes, which have altered the neighbouring shales into a brick-like rock. 

The faulted boundary with the Mahadevas is well seen south of 
Hargaon and of Gurmuti, where a fault-rock similar to the one described 
from the Garia nullah forms a high dividing ridge between the two 

d • ( 177 ) 


B. — MoENB River Sections. 

14. — Section in the Morne Nullah between Kandia and Hadrai, Fig. 3, 

Plate 4. 
3. Talchirs. In the Hadrai nullah they show the following section -. — 

a, boulder-bed ; h, irregular bed of marls and shales with boulders ; 
c, thick beds of greenish fine-grained sandstone with lenticular 
masses of boulder-bed ; d, silty-green boulder-bed ; e, fine-grained 
sandstone with marly yellow and green shales, strike north 20" 
east to south 20° west, dip 10° to north-20°-west. 
2. Sub-metamorphic conglomerate as described before, page 10. 
1. Granite, with two hornblendic dykes. 

Near the junction of the Morne with the Joba nullah the Talchirs 

are brought into direct contact with the Mahadevas by faulting^. Tho 

beds are a g-ood deal crumpled here by a succession of north-west to 

south-east faults^ which in one or two places expose the purple and 

variegated coloured marls or clays of Panchet type below the Mahadevas 

which now dip 25° to 27° south-west. 

15. — Sections of the Ltmdra Hills. 

In the nullahs flowing from the Lundra hills^ and joining either 

the Suknai or the Morne later on^ we obtain very good sections through 

all the beds of Gondwana rocks. 

In descending order : — 

6. Mahadeva sandstone, forms a cap as it were on the top of the Panchet 
grits and clays, and witli the latter is much shattered and traversed by 
local faults, difficult to trace. Near Lundra the lower beds (Panchets) 
appear again from below the Mahadevas and present a rolling dip, 
wherever seen, in the small nullahs intersecting this plain. 
5. Panchets. e. Gritty sandstone with angular pebbles of metamorphics 
and hard ferruginous conglomerates consisting of an- 
gular fragments, some of considerable size. 
No exposure for some distance. 

d. Bluist silts, similar to (6), here and there variegated, 

with gritty masses and bands of clay iron ore. 

e. Gritty ferruginous shales. 

h. Silty beds, not unlike Talchirs in some respects, but 

densely red. 
a. Marly beds, splitting into rhomboidal pieces, 
f 178 ) 


No exposure for some distance. 
4. Raniganj. Fine-graiued ferruginous grits. 

No exposure seen for some distance. 
3. Barakars. c. Shales and sandstones of Barakar type. 

b. Coal-seam, 7' thickness. Strike north 30'^ east to soulli 

30° west : dip 9° north 30"* west. 
a. Sandstone, worn out in potholes, 
2. Talchirs. Same succession as that seen in the Hadrai nullah. In the 
southernmost part of the Lundra sections the belt of Talchirs is only 
about a quarter of a mile in width ; near Pandauli village it is nearly 
a mile wide, but forms now only a thin plastering over the metamov- 
phics. North-east of Pandauli the Talchirs are worn away, and the 
underlying granite is exposed for some distance, forming an island as it 
were in the Talchirs. 
1. Granite. 
About a mile west of Lundra village the Panchet grits are again cut 
off by a north-west to south-east fault, which brings them into direct 
contact with the Barakars, which are well exposed in the Suknai nullah. 
The sections shown in the Tabor and similar nullahs are greatly 
obscured .by alluvial sands, and do not afford good material for observa- 
tions. Similar clays and grits, as before described, are seen at intervals iu 
the rivers and show a rolling dip, and in a red clay, containing lumps of 
haematite, Vertehraria indica, Royle, and Glossopteris communis, Pstm., were 
found; the bed corresponds exactly with bed 30 of the following section. 
Below Udhari I came suddenly on Barakars, of exactly the same type as 
seen in the neighbouring Suknai nullah ; and west of Lundra, in the 
Suknai nullah itself (south-east of the Sarsera), a faulted boundary be- 
tween the Barakars and Panchet grits is clearly shown. 

16. — The section in the Suknai Nullah, letween Sarsera and the junc- 
tion with the Morne River. 
In descending order as follows : — 

Starting from the Morne river : 
Dip 5° W, 20° N. 48. Bluish shales with faint impressions of 
leaves ... 

47= Banded micaceous sandstone with coal 

markings ... ... .,. 2' 6" 

( 179 ) 


46. Shales with band of haematite 

45. Banded sandstone 

44. Blue shales 

43. Sandstone ... ... 

42. Shales 

41. Banded sandstone with carbonaceous 

40. Shales ... ... 

39. Banded micaceous sandstone 

38. Sandstone 

37. Conchoidal shales 

36. Shales and sandstone, not well shown, 

35. Fine-grained yellowish sandstone 

34. Shales 

33. Ked banded sandstone 

32. Shales with haematite band ... 

31. Grey fine-grained sandstone ... 

30. Clay shales with haematite band containing— 
Vertehraria indica, Eoyle, Glossopteris 
communis, Fstm. ... ••• 

29. Coal-seam 

28. Shales with Glossopteris communis, Fstm. 

27. Fine-grained micaceous sandstone with 
coal-markings; ripple-marked 

26. Conchoidal shales ... 

25. Fine-grained greyish yellow sandstone 

24. Sandstone and shales ; the former micaceous 
with carbonaceous markings 

23. Blue shales 

22. Fine-grained sandstone with ripple-marks 

21. Blue shales. 

20. Fine-grained micaceous sandstone with car- 
bonaceous markings ; purplish-coloured 
fine-grained sandstone with ripple-marks 
and grey sandstone ... ... S' 

19. Gritty sandstone ... ... ... 7' 

18; Blue shales ... ... ... 1' 

17. Banded micaceous sandstone with marks of 
coal overlaid by thin shales and bluish 
grits ; the latter contains a thin parting 
of shales ,,, ,,, ... 8' 

( 180 ) 

































16. Shales 




15. Thick bed of sandstone 


, ,,, 


14, Conchoidal clay shales 




13. Thin-bedded reddish sandstone 

overlaid by 

grits in thick beds, 



thin beds of shales 

, , 


12. Blue conchoidal shales 


. ... 


11. Greyish gritty sandstone 


• •. 


10. Bluish clay shales 




9, Coal-seam 

■ .. 




8. Conchoidal shales 



7. Banded sandstone 


• •• 


6. Blue carbonaceous shales 




5. Coal ... 





4. Conchoidal shales 


■ • • 



3. Reddish sandstone, gritty 


• •• 


2. Shales ■ ... 


• •• 


1. Sandstone. 


... 2 




Along the Suhnai Nullah, south of Sarsera, I found in descending- order ; 

II. Ranigang ? Soft white felspathic grits with pebble beds ; jointed. 


I. BaraTcars. 
Dip 50° W.-20°N. 29. Yellowish and blue conchoidal shales alternating with sand- 
28. Dark shales alternating with ferruginous sandstone. 
Dip 30° W. 27. Gritty earthy 'sandstone, micaceous, with carbonaceous mark- 

ings and partings of hard ferruginous shales. 
26. Micaceous clay shales. 
25. Hard sandstones. 
24, Carbonaceous shales. 
23. Hard sandstone. 
22. Carbonaceous shales. 

21. Banded reddish micaceous sandstone, with partings of shales. 
20. Grey conchoidal shales. 
19. Hard fine-grained sandstone. 
18. Dark shales. 
17. Coal-seam ... ... ... i 

(• 181 ) 


16. Hard thin-bedded sandstone with micaceous bauds. 

15. Thin bed of hard blue shales. 

14. Thin bed of hard sandstone. 

13. Dark clay sliales ... ... ... 4' 6'' 

12. Coal, with shaly partings, thickness ... 7' 4" 

11. Eeddish-banded micaceous sandstone. 
Dip 40° W. 20° N. 10. Dark-grey very hard clay. 

■ 9. Thin irregular bed of felspathic grit. 

8. Banded shales ; traces of leaves. 

7. Grey clay shales, with papery-yellow shales, towards top densely 
red ; traces of fossils. 

6. Thin-bedded grits, towards base micaceous. 

5. Friable grey shales. 

4. Grits alternating with micaceous shaly sandstone. 
Dip 35° W. 20° N. 3. Banded shaly sandstones, traces of fossils. 

2. Micaceous shaly sandstone, very cai-bonaceous. 

I. Dark hard conchoidal shales. 

The section ends against Panchet beds along a fault. 

The section in the Suknai nullah is evidently a continuous one, as is 
proved by the coal-seam ; the 7' 4* coal-seam bed 12 of the last sec- 
tion is probably identical with the 7' seam of the Lundra (Belia) section, 
and I identified this seam and nearly the whole group of beds in the 
following section. 

i7. — Section along the Nullah north-west of Banka Khar. 
Between the Mahadeva escarpment and the Morne river, I found the 
following beds in descending order : 

No exposure for some distance ; just below 
the Mahadevas are whitish grits and 
clays, which probably beloug to Pan- 
18. Shales with coal ... ... ... 3' 6" 

17. Sandstone. 

16. Shales with a thin carbonaceous layer ... 1' 6" 

15. Sandstone. 

14. Shales ... ... ... 0' 6" 

13. Coal ... ... ... ... 2' 2" 

12. Thin splitting shales. 

II. Sandstone with iron ore beds ... ... 14' 

( 182 ) 




10. Shales with coal ... 
9. Shales and banded sandstoue . . . 
8. Shales. 

No rock seen in situ. 
7. Coal-seam 
6. Shales ... 
5. Haematite bed 
4. Sandstone and shales 

No rock seen in situ ... 

3. Banded micaceous sandstone 
2. Shales with a thin seam of coal 
1. Coarse-grained yellowish sandstone. 

... 10' 


... 56' 


... 1' 


[ 300' 




... 3' 


... 6' 


18. — Section in the Budatand Nullah. 

I obtained nearly tlie same suc- 

In the adjoining" Budatand nullah 
cession of rocks and coal-seams. 

In descending- order : 
IV. Mahadevas. 

III. Panchets ? 3. White gritty sandstone with strings of pebbles. 

2. Hard brown micaceous sandstone. 

1. Greenish sandstone with strings of pebbles. 

//. Ranigang. 4. Soft micaceous shales with fossils. 

3. Shales with fossUs — 

Schizoneura gondwanensis, Fstm. 
Glossopferis angustifolia, Bgt. 

2. Soft light grey micaceous shales, marlj^ with traces of fossils. 
1. Thick-bed of mealy felspathic sandstone. 

I. Barakars. 

Dip 20° north- 
west, but rolling 


29. Shales and sandstone. 

28. Coal, with shaly partings. 

27. Thin-bedded sandstone and shales. 

26. Conchoidal shales. 

25. For some distance rocks in situ are only seen here and there 
higher up — 

24. Carbonaceous shales, with partings of coal,.. 0' 6*" 

23. Hard sandstones with grey micaceous and 

bituminous shales alternating ... 43' 0" 

22. Shales and sandstone alternating with band- 
ed shales on top 

92' 0' 



21. Conchoidal ghales with thin ferruginous 

partings and clayey shales at base 
20, Shaly coal 

19. Banded shales with micaceous sandstone ... 
18. Coal with shales ... 

17. Shales and sandstone with fossil leaves 1 
16. Sandstone i 

15. Shaly coal 
14. Coal-seam 

13. Dark bluish shales... „. 

12. Sandstone in a thick bed 
11. Thin-bedded sandstone and shales 
10. Coaly shale with nodules of iron ore 

9. Banded grey micaceous shales and sandstone 

8. Shales... 

7. Hard sandstone ... ... ,., 

6. Coal ... ... ... 

5. Sandstone and shales 

4. Coal ... 

3. Sandstone and shales ... 

2. Coal ... 

1. Hard fine-grained sandstone. 








































... 440' 6" 

19. — Section South of Manpur. 
In the Morne river south of Manpur, I found Barakars well deve- 
loped ; the series is cut off by a fault about a mile south of Manpur 
village, and thrown against Mahadevas, which apparently dip below the 

In descending order I found : 
I, Barakars : 

Dip 15° N. 40. Shaly sandstone ... ... ... 0" 8* 

39. Grey shales with clunchy clays and sand- 
stone with thin coal-seam 2"... ... 0' 

38. Same as 36. 

37. Coal ... ... ... ... 0' 2" 

36. Dark-blue shales with clunchy ochre-colour- 
ed clays ... ... ... 1' 10 

35. Shales ... ... ... ^. 2' 

( 184 ) 




Coaly shale 



Same as 31 







Blue conchoidal shales with lenticular lumps 
of clay iron ore and bands of ferruginous 




Eaiihy bed gradually passing into clayey 





Dark shales, jointed 






Shales and flaggy laminated sandstone, very 

fine-grained and white »,. 



Not exposed 200' in the bend of the Morne 
river. The following is the escarpment 
seen on the right bank, immediately 
below the village : — 


Sandstone with partings of shales 



Blue shales 



Banded carbonaceous sandstone and shales... 



Carbonaceous shales 











Carbonaceous sandstone 



Shales (with coal-seam 1") 

C 10" 


Micaceous sandstone with carbonaceous mark- 





Coal ... 




Shaly banded sandstone 




Shales ... 




Coal ... 




Sandstone and shales. 


Shaly micaceous grey sandstone with fossil 
traces; partings of shales and ripple- 


Same as 7. 


Layer of haematite. 


Dark grey shales. 


Grey shales and flaggy sandstone : some 

distance section hidden by river 




Thin-bedded sandstone with bed of shales ,.. 




Bluish -grey conchoidal shales ... ,,, 




Haematite bed 



( 185 ) 


3. Hard ferruginous sandstone ... ... 1' 

No exposure. 

2. Grey shaly micaceous sandstone ... 3' 3" 

1. Micaceous sandstone ... ... 3' 6" 

20. — Section in the Morne near Farasdiha. 
Between the junction of the Morne and the Budatand river and 
Pavasdiha nullahs there is a succession of beds of Barakar type shattered 
by a series of parallel faults of north-20°-west and south-20°"east direc- 
tion. I observed not less than four distinct faults in that portion of the 
section. The dip is very varying, and rolls from 5° north-west to about 5° 
east ; but the section is too much covered by recent deposits to afford 
opportunities for study. Between the junction of the Parasdiha with the 
Morne river and the junction of the latter with the Satnachna; I obtained 
a very broken and faulted section of Ranig-anj beds as follows : — 

Ascending : 

Raniganj shales, &c. 


1. Sandy micaceous soft shales with fossil traces ... 20' 

2. Sandstone ... ••• ••• ••• 3 6 

3. Grey shales containing — ... ... „. 0' 6' 

Vertehraria indica, Eoyle. 
Glossopteris communis, Fstm. 

„ datnudica, „ 

„ angustifolia, Bgt. 

4. Thin-bedded sandstone 

5. Grey flaggy and micaceous sandstones 

6. Grey friable shales 

7. Beds 5 and 6 alternating 

8. Sandstone 

9. Grey friable shales 

10. Sandstones 

11. Flaggy sandstone and shales alternating ... 

12. Grey, very friable shales 

13. Flaggy sandstone 

14. Sandstone ... — 

3 repetitions of this series bij faulting. 
1.5. Blue shales, sandstone flags and shales ... ... 6' 

( 186 ) 


















16. Micaceous slialy sandstone ... ..• 

17. Sandstone ripple-mavked 

18. Micaceous shaly sandstone and cla3^s alternating 

19. Shaly coal, with partings of shales 

20. Shales 

21. Flaggy sandstone and shales alternating ... 

22. Shaly coal 

23. Sandstone flags and shales 

24. Thick bed of sandstone, ferruginous and capped by bed 

of hasmatite (2") 

25. Shales with fossils 

26. Sandstone flags and shales 

27. Thick bed of sandstone 

28. Soft felspathic sandstone in irregular beds. 


28. Sandstone. 

Shales, &c. 

At first the dip is 15° north-west, but it increases to 20° north- 
west within a short distance. 

.. .3' 




. 1' 


. r 


. 3' 




. 18' 

. 2' 


. 4' 


. 25' 

. 1' 

21. — Sections in the Suidud, Kuhia, and Andhenia Nullahs and the coimtry 


The sections along the Suidud, Kubia, and Andherua nullahs seem to 
be equally affected by the parallel faults noticed in the Morne river, 
for the Gondwanas there are completely shattered, and it is scarcely 
possible to identify the beds. The only point I could settle with any 
degree of certainty is, that the metamorphics south of these nullahs, 
near Dand Karua for instance, are covered by a considerable thickness of 
Talchir boulder.bed and shales; enormous boulders of lenticular shape 
are scattered throughout the silty matrix of the Talchirs, many of them 
being weathered out by sub-aerial denudation. Above Talchirs follow 
the remains of Barakar sandstones, shales, and coal-seams. The Barakar 
sandstone of the Suidud nullah, containing Noggerathiojisis hislopi, 
Bunb., affords a very good illustration of erosion by water; large pot-holes 
and narrow gorges are formed by the rush of the water during the 
rainy season, as shown in the annexed drawing, fig. 3 : — 

( 187 ) 



Fig: 3. Erosion m Barakar Sandstone of Sxiidud nullah. 



Just beneatli the Mahadevas of tLe Kathota hill a narrow strip of 
red sandstones crops out with red and purplish clays, which I include 
amongst the Panehet rocks on lithological grounds. 

Similarly obscure are all the sections afforded in the Satnachna 
nullah ; I could only obtain broken groups of rocks, and if they had not 
fortunately yielded fossils, it would have been very difficult to make out 
their relations. 

The nullah cuts through the strata near Reonti, exposing them in 
two vertical cliffs of very nearly horizontal bedding. One of them due 
west of the village is as follows : — 

Descending : 

12. Thinly-bedded grey shales and soft sandstones 
11. Bluish shales 

10. Micaceous sandstone flags with carbonaceous mark- 
ings ; they weather purplish 

9. Blue shales with layers of mica 

8. Conchoidal blue shales 

7. Same as 10 

6. Bluish shales 

5. Hard purplish sandstone flags 

4. Shales 

3. Hard purplish sandstone flag8 

2. Clay shales 

1. Same as 10 and 7 ... 

Similar is the vertical cliff north-west of Reonti village (southern 

Descending : 

11. Soft calcareous sandstone ... ... ... 1' 6'' 

10. Micaceous purplish-grey sandstone flags " ... l' 

9. Marly, ochi-e-coloured shales ... ... 0' 10" 

8. Grey, very friable shales ... ... ... o' 6" 

7. Leafy lignite, consisting entirely of fossil leaves ... 0' 1" 

6. Uneven bed of clunchy clay ... ... ... 0' 4" 

5. Same as 8 ... .,. ... __ ^' 



















{ 189 ) 


4. Grey marls, micaceous, alternating with j'ellowisli- 
coloured soft sandstone ; the beds of the latter are 
only about 1" thick near top ; towards base the 
divisions widen and sandstone predominates ... 3' 6" 

3. Dark-grey bituminous shales ... ... 6" 

2. Grey micaceous shaly sandstone with — ... 4' 

Glossopteris indica, Schmp. 

1. Grey shales, base not seen. 

Total ... .13' 0" 

About three miles further down the Satnachna nullah west of Dhonda 
villag-ej I found another exposure, in descending order : 

6. Tine marly 3'ellowish-brown sandstone ... ... 1' 4" 

5. Micaceous shales with carbonaceous markings ... 2' 6'' 

4. Marls ... ... ... ... 1' IC 

3. T^odular iron ore baud with reddish shales, contain-^ 
ing — ... ... ... I 

. . ! 0' 3" 

Olossopteris indica, Schmp. ... r 

,. communis, Fstm. ... J 

2. Clay shales ... ... ... ... 0' 6" 

1. Grey micaceous shaly sandstone with coaly markings, 

base not seen. 

There is very little doubt that these beds all belong to the Earakar 
group ; both the lithological character as well as the palseontological 
evidence point in that direction. 

Crossing over the level jungle country from Dhonda to Narola, I 
came successively across felspathic grits and ochre-coloured shales, which 
probably belong to the Raniganj series, as seen in the Morne river 
near Parasdiha, the beds of which section strike across that part of 
the country, but no absolute certainty can exist in the absence of a good 
section. The micaceous clay shales and red grits with purplish clays of 
Narola itself may in that case be Panchets, immediately underlying the 
Mahadevas. It is tolerably certain that all the groups of lower Gond- 
wanas are represented in the patch between Noudiha and Ramkola, but 
the beds seen there are merely detached portions of rocks, surrounded on 
all sides by trap dykes and intrusive sheets, and in many places are 
quite altered by the trap flows into a brick-like mass. The shales with 
( 190 ) 


sandstone beds of the Paupliica nullah contain the following- Barakar 
forms : — 

Glossopteris damudica, Fstm. 

„ indica. 

„ communis. 

Naeggerathiopsis hislopi, Bunb. 

The shales and clays dipping- below the scarp of the Tamor and Bendo 

hills contain Glossopteris angustifolia, Bgt., Fertebraria indica, Royle 

(branched form), and may probably belong- to the Ranigauj series, which 

they resemble in some respects. Near Namadhakai I obtained a nearly 

complete succession of the Gondwana series : — 

I. — Mahadevas of the Kathota hill. 

ll.—Barahar type resting on the Talchirs, but nothing further was exposed 
between these and the — 

III. — TalcMr silts rest there on metamorphics (granite), containing many 
boulders of red Vindhyan quartzites. They are well seen in all the 
gullies coming down from the Kathota hill. 

The great trap-sheet already mentioned has chiefly forced its way 
between beds of the Panchets and the Mahadevas, so that in nearly all 
the sections hereabouts, trap is met with in that horizon, thouo>h not 
always seen in situ. , 

C. — Mahan River Sections. 
A very good section through nearly all beds of the Gondwanas is 
obtained between the Mahadevas of the Tamor scarp and the metamorphic 
series south of the Mahan river, fig. 3, Plate 5. I found in descending 
order : 

6. The Mahadeva sandstones and grits form the wall-like escarpments of the 
Tamor and Dokrichana hills, which rise up to 2,758 feet, and which I have 
already described in my general chapter on Mahadevas, p. 19. 

• Namadhaka is a favourite encamping ground of the Gaewallas (herdsmen) of Sing, 
rowli, who take their cattle to the Sirguja jungles during the dry season for grazing pur- 
poses ; it is south of Dand Karua and north-west of Pandari, just below the Mahadeva 
scarp, which stretches in a nearly north-south direction from near Pakni to Daud Karua, 
aua which is called the Kathotha hills on the large survey maps. 

( 191 ) 


5. Fanchets are at least very probable below the Mabadevas in the neigbbourbood 
of Garuatand, wbere yellowirb sbaly clays are seen in situ, but tbe relations 
to tbe surrounding rocks are not clear enougb to sbow tbem on tbe map. 
4. Maniganj beds with numerous specimens of Schizoneura gondwanensis, Fstm., 
present in the Jokna nullah, but tbe boundary witb tbe underlying Barakas^ 
cannot even be guessed at, as tbe nullah does not afford a continuous section. 
Similarly difficult is tbe adjoining section near Majurdaki, where the trap 
dyke has altered all tbe rocks, converting tbe whole into burnt brick-like 

3. Barakars, containing Vertehraria indica, Eoyle., Glossopteris indica, Scbmp. 

The shales and sandstones near the trap have been altered into a glass-like slag in 
some places, and in many ways tbe trap bas disturbed and shattered tbe 
adjoining rocks. 

2. TalcJiirs. South of Abirapara I found Talcbir sandstones and silts with boulders 
of tbe usual yellowish-green colour resting on tbe metamorphic series. They 
form only a thin plastering over tbe older rocks, filling up hollows bere and 
there, and thinning out and disappearing below the Barakars south-west of 
Chikni village. 

A great trap dyke cuts through tbe area covered by Talcbirs south of Abirapara 
and altered the shales in some measure, so that it is not easy to distinguisb 
tbem from tbe overlying Barakars. 

1. The Metamorpliic series. — Mica scbist witb veins of granite form tbe high 
ridge south of tbe Maban river, and is a continuation of tbe range of meta- 
morpbics which stretcbes from near Tatapani in a south-west direction to- 
wards the Jilmilli field, separating tbe Bisrampur coal-field from my area. 
South-east of Majurdaki the mica scbist immediately underlying tbe Talcbirs 
contain numerous hornblendic veins, the whole dipping 55° to the north. 

19^ ) 

Mr.moiri:. Vol. XV F^ li. Pi I 

GE L n Crl G A 

Oulfulp a-lj 


■5 Tnloldrs 

of tKr Me.i'unvipm.c. sfrT.r..<: 



,> ^ 

/■^.a ^ Profile 
1 ^ <? Orani 

G E L C Ct I C A L S U R V tj Y P I T-J D I A 

G.,-lhslii..c.h Coal-filcid of BornkoU, a,i,i. Ta-t.ip, 

^ ' \ 

* >* * SS' »'■ - * " ^ ^-*4; 

F,.Q l Vroftlr 
I Gnr,-,^x - 2 Gran 

rjj/vu: tn'.rifS ol Am ftnjtduiJt. 

d. -^^ a. Trapib/he.^~^ •f Mnhxtd>i-a 

Geological Survey of India. 

Griesbach. CksaJfields of Ramkola. 

Fig. 1. II. 

■ L . QnesbacK. B'. G . S , del. R..]Viintern lith. 

Mintem Bros, imp. 

F i g. 1. Potholes, irv Talchir. Sandstone, North 

of Mitgcdny. 

Fig. 2. Talchir' louMer-hed cuvd shales. 

Southwest of Karvdicv. 

1- Gneiss . 2. HorTzilendu: RccTc. 

3. Tourmalins Granite. 4. Vindhian. Qaartxite. 

Memoirs Vol. XV Ft. 11 Fl .:', 


,c,li. CoOLl-l\eU rf KaTOtioln ..,m To-tafa 


M»moira Vol. XVPt.II PI .3. 

Fnj.3. ExposPd m the Nullttli E'aoJl i^f ^tfih-i ai-ui (j-Ioiit; the Barthi bivlla^h to Farir 

Me-mun-s Vol. XV. l"*^ II. PI. 1\7 , 

1-f to 16. Fi,ccm,(j ccrt^ 17. to 

rani'iic: rooks 

he Morrve NuZLauh 

or-Tce NviH-ah^ 6. Facrvcl^Le-t- cLays o. J/aAoctZevo-J 


isiicli- CoiLl €Uld. oC Hfl^nkuW onA Tni-ap o 

M«m«,i-i Vol. XV. Ft- II. PI, IV. 

a^r i. 

/■V,^ 1^ SccUim ,u<ir,Q tk-c NuJInh^s Lett aluL Hifjhl lA' ihc Banhi. Nullah ffc.t/, ,j: Chumra. 
F fauU with I favuU.rock- I Mi.r.a,r.hzH 2. Cu IS BazuJtars It ^o W. Iiccni.ffan.) (7. to 21 Vanrhcts 22 MaKadcVus 

,t,.>i^ic#gSs?^:(i ■'; ffr J '-./j r^' 

Hr.l,.;, ?.,(.vi.> 

Uoi..« NmIU). 

5 ■ Ua-had. 

Pip- ■■( .■ifc/.i„Ti hc/irrfr, Aa,, <l,a, „„,(, (;,,■ Mornt- NnLiaA 


nioiic. Vol. XV r^' n M. 

Kotln KotJn valla-ffr. 


GEO I-- ("' ; r A ;.. r i: K v s ^- of India. 

lU:noirs Vcl XV P^ fl M 

Fl^ / S-ctwn ^e/»-«n. 0^ i'lfra Hill r^U Koihi Village 

riffh i^'-e MaJ,ad^v, 

Ta^pa, <xjid KhA 

1-;.Q ?, .^n /'r-fJi rrn '/''■ T'tnto/- plvJfau and fAc Ala/rxin ya/^e. 



G: E G L G. I C A L S U R. V E ^ 

Grie sLa-ck ■ CoaL-fi.cLi, of,ola. ar,.A. Tid. 

b'r'n. 1. Mcihai^-f-vn. cxcaTpni.enf i1> of the. TrtriuTr tsoi 

Fip 2. FrolY.Ce of Mahadeia. bilLs as se.cTh\ 


r'>!ours. i;470 

Pig. 3. M ahoa-dei- a hiLLs (i) Trapdiike 

. \ 


Mb'tici s Vo:. XV P^ II ?] VI 

liujrik.ol-n.) n'Lt/i- trit/ ij^six p .<ift£cL of IVap IZ) 

om. Jill,! a. B ca'hhv . 

t.hi\ ai Hx ProTii, Faisal: 


., ■ - ■■■. ■>*■■ ■ ;-. '.n • " ■„■ 


* V 



S i 

if * 

■■■•,• ■>. ■ 





i''r<j. 1. Mohailrva .• .< ,:,y,prnj-„l <1t of H,j: 'Tnm.Jr pUfeou. IjiOuO. of Hajrfknln.) %vlth. intiu^ue sliAcL of IVaptZ) 

Fiq C FrnirCc of Mahadeia tulls as stcn, irom. i'rua. Bnrlh, 

hoiiiv, i'4 7Cl 

C. L iliip.sl5a,ch. del. 8c Ht.h. 

!•'((). 3. Mali.a-dcia liiUs HI u,//, TiajjclifL.' 

";• fe.c,»i-= 

Fit;. 3. Exposed m the Nu7Lxli East of (^idhi an-d along the. Banki NuJJoT, to Fan? 

Bnll Hutar Coal Field 


M mo re Vol XV 


Ball. Coal-Fields of Palamow. 


Memoirs Vol. XV 

Compiled from sheeta Noa. 13 and 18 of the Map of Weatern Bengal